Linguistic Image of a Clergyman in Ukrainian Paremiis

 © The Editorial Team of Linguistic Studies

Linguistic Studies
Volume 28, 2014, pp. 81-85

Linguistic Image of a Clergyman in Ukrainian Paremiis

Natalia Рiddubna

Article first published online: April 03, 2014 


Additional information

 Author Information: 

Nataliya V. Piddubna is Candidate of Philology, Associate Professor at Department of Ukrainian Language in Skovoroda Kharkіv National Pedagogical University. Her areas of research interests include historical lexicology and cognitive linguistics. Correspondence: piddubna-n@mail.ru

Citation: 
Рiddubna, N. Linguistic Image of a Clergyman in Ukrainian Paremiis [Text] // Linguistic Studies collection of scientific papers / Donetsk National University Ed. by A. P. Zahnitko. – Donetsk : DonNU, 2014. – Vol. 28. – Pp. 81-85. – ISBN 966-7277-88-7

Publication History:
Volume first published online: April 03, 2014

Article received: 17 September 2013, accepted: December 26, 2013 and first published online: April 03, 2013

Annotation.

This article is devoted to the studying of linguistic image of a clergyman that is fixed in Ukrainian phraseological picture of the world. It analyses the methods of representation of a clergyman, gives the general tendencies of modeling of negative connotation in phraseological phrases on the basis of actualization of negative evaluation that is fixed in linguistic consciousness and mentality of Ukrainians.

Keywords: linguistic image, proverbs, phraseological picture of the world, connotation, negative evaluation, linguistic consciousness, mentality.



Abstract.

LINGUISTIC IMAGE OF A CLERGYMAN IN UKRAINIAN PAREMIIS

Natalia Рiddubna

Department of Ukrainian Language, Skovoroda Kharkiv National Pedagogical University, Kharkіv, Kharkiv region, Ukraine

 

Available 17 September 2013.

 

Abstract

Relevance

The research of the Ukrainian Phraseological fund is of different aspects and inexhaustible for specialists in study of literature, culturology, ethnographers and linguists, because centuries-old experience of the Ukrainian people and their world apprehension are encoded in these small text forms. M. Alefirenko notes that "the study of proverbs and sayings that reflect the view of the world within a single national cultural traditions, forms its dictionary contents and defines specific textual organization will allow to reveal perception features and knowledge of the various peoples of the world, the character of reflection and dismemberment of the world by means of the specific ethnic group language" [Алефиренко 2006: 117]. The researches of the phraseological phrases world picture, carried out in the sphere of cultural studies and linguoconceptology in recent years have represented linguistic consciousness of the people, their mentality, axiological moral principles in their most vivid way. It is obvious that phraseological phrases reflect practically all aspects of human life. There is an important layer of proverbs concerning concept "Religion," which recently is the focus of attention of the researchers. The problem of sacred sphere conceptualization in particular is worked out by L. Voronovska who studies the verbalization of the ethnic archetypes in the religious life of the Ukrainians, K. Simovych explores the archetype semantics "cross" in the Ukrainian language, O. Yasinovska – ethical vocabulary of the New Testament from the perspective of cognitive linguistics, M. Skab – conceptualization sacred sphere in projection on the concept of "soul", P. Mats'kiv – the concept of "God", and T. Wilchynska, besides the concept "God", analyzed the concepts "Virgin" and "Prophet" based on the poetry of XVIIth – XXth century, the subject of N. Venzhynovych’s research activity was sacred sphere conceptualization phenomenon by means of phraseology (see more detailed overview [Скаб 2010]). At present, conceptualization research of fragments of the world religious means of Ukrainian phraseological phrases is not complete and therefore requires research attention for its total description.

Purpose

The purpose of scientific investigation is to find out peculiarities of a clergyman lingual image verbalization which is modeled in the Ukrainian phraseological picture of the world.

Tasks

The necessity to fill in the following lacuna indicates the fact that such an important piece of the conceptual sphere "Religion", which is the image of clergymen, also remains unreseached nowadays that is the task of the paper. The exception is C. Ref’s research work [2], where the composition, source and ways of clerical terminology formation are analyzed on the basis of the church ranks and positions names.

Conclusion

In the Ukrainian phraseological world picture the clergyman image is verbalized in general mostly in the negative way. The clergyman is represented as greedy, insincere, ambitious, foolish, and indifferent to others. Phraseological phrases of the type Який піп, така його й парафія; Який піп, таке й благословення characterize the priest positively to show that no social group is a monolith as for certain traits. Ironical characteristic of a clergyman, his negative rating is motivated by the fact that in the popular mind, the Ukrainian mentality that image is perceived primarily not as a mediator between God and the laymen but as the person with his vices.

Perspective

Perspective seems axiological research of the conceptual images "Religion" verbalized in phraseological world picture of the Ukrainians.

 

Research highlights

► This article is devoted to the studying of linguistic image of a clergyman, that is fixed in Ukrainian paremiical picture of the world. ► It analyses the methods of representation of a clergyman, gives the general tendencies of modeling of negative connotation in paremiis on the basis of actualization of negative evaluation that is fixed in linguistic consciousness and mentality of Ukrainians.

Keywords: linguistic image, proverbs, phraseological picture of the world, connotation, negative evaluation, linguistic consciousness, mentality.

 

References

Alefyrenko, N. F (2006). Yazyk, poznane y kul'tura: Kohnytyvno-semyolohycheskaya synerhetyka slova. Volhohrad: Peremena

Bibla, S. V. (1997). Sklad, dzherela i shlyakhy formuvannya ukrayins'koyi tserkovnoyi terminolohiyi (nazvy tserkovnykh chyniv ta posad). Avtoref. dys. … kand. filol. Nauk. Kyyiv.

Bilodid, Yu. I. (1981). Zasoby ironiyi u suchasnomu politychnomu romani. Movoznavstvo, 1981, 4, 71-73.

Huyvanyuk, N. (2004). Syntaksychni sposoby realizatsiyi ironichnoho znachennya v ukrayins'kykh fol'klornykh zhanrakh. Visnyk L'vivs'koho universytetu. Seriya filolohichna. L'viv. Vyp. 34, I, 24-31.

Koval's'ka, N.A. (2007). Zminy relihiynoho svitobachennya v ukrayins'kykh paremiyakh (leksema Бог ta yiyi semantychni synonimy). Linhvistychni doslidzhennya: zbirnyk naukovykh prats'. Kharkiv. Vyp 22, 9-13.

Kosmeda, T. (2000). Aksiolohichni aspekty prahmalinhvistyky. L'viv: LNU im. Ivana Franka.

Pryymachok, O. (2004). Modal'na metafora v ukrayins'kykh paremiyakh. Visnyk L'vivs'koho universytetu. Seriya filolohichna. L'viv. Vyp. 34, I, 239-243.

Skab, M. (2010). Osnovni napryamy doslidzhennya vzayemodiyi ukrayins'koyi movy i sfery sakral'noho: zdobutky ta perspektyvy. Naukovyy visnyk Chernivets'koho natsional'noho universytetu imeni Yuriya Fed'kovycha: zbirnyk naukovykh prats'. Chernivtsi. Vyp. 506-508, 3-10.

 

Sources and Abbreviations

HRNP, (1910). Halyts'ko-rus'ki narodni prypovidky. L'viv: Drukarnya Naukovoho tovarystva imeni Shevchenka, T. 3.

Marshak, S. (1999). Druz'ja-tovarishhi. Moskva: Mahaon.

UNPP, (1955). Ukrayins'ki narodni prysliv’ya ta prykazky. Kyyiv: Vydavnytstvo Akademiyi nauk Ukrayins'koyi RSR.

UPP, (1984). Ukrayins'ki prysliv"ya ta prykazky. Kyyiv: Dnipro.

Correspondence: piddubna-n@mail.ru

Vitae

Nataliya V. Piddubna is Candidate of Philology, Associate Professor at Department of Ukrainian Language in Skovoroda Kharkіv National Pedagogical University. Her areas of research interests include historical lexicology and cognitive linguistics.

 

Article.

Natalia Рiddubna

УДК 821.161.2.03

LINGUISTIC IMAGE OF A CLERGYMAN IN UKRAINIAN PAREMIIS

 

This article is devoted to the studying of linguistic image of a clergyman that is fixed in Ukrainian phraseological picture of the world. It analyses the methods of representation of a clergyman, gives the general tendencies of modeling of negative connotation in phraseological phrases on the basis of actualization of negative evaluation that is fixed in linguistic consciousness and mentality of Ukrainians.

Keywords: linguistic image, proverbs, phraseological picture of the world, connotation, negative evaluation, linguistic consciousness, mentality.

 

The research of the Ukrainian Phraseological fund is of different aspects and inexhaustible for specialists in study of literature, culturology, ethnographers and linguists, because centuries-old experience of the Ukrainian people and their world apprehension are encoded in these small text forms. M. Alefirenko notes that "the study of proverbs and sayings that reflect the view of the world within a single national cultural traditions, forms its dictionary contents and defines specific textual organization will allow to reveal perception features and knowledge of the various peoples of the world, the character of reflection and dismemberment of the world by means of the specific ethnic group language" [Алефиренко 2006: 117]. The researches of the phraseological phrases world picture, carried out in the sphere of cultural studies and linguoconceptology in recent years have represented linguistic consciousness of the people, their mentality, axiological moral principles in their most vivid way. It is obvious that phraseological phrases reflect practically all aspects of human life. There is an important layer of proverbs concerning concept "Religion," which recently is the focus of attention of the researchers. The problem of sacred sphere conceptualization in particular is worked out by L. Voronovska who studies the verbalization of the ethnic archetypes in the religious life of the Ukrainians, K. Simovych explores the archetype semantics "cross" in the Ukrainian language, O. Yasinovska – ethical vocabulary of the New Testament from the perspective of cognitive linguistics, M. Skab – conceptualization sacred sphere in projection on the concept of "soul", P. Mats'kiv – the concept of "God", and T. Wilchynska, besides the concept "God", analyzed the concepts "Virgin" and "Prophet" based on the poetry of XVIIth – XXth century, the subject of N. Venzhynovych’s research activity was sacred sphere conceptualization phenomenon by means of phraseology (see more detailed overview [Скаб 2010]). At present, conceptualization research of fragments of the world religious means of Ukrainian phraseological phrases is not complete and therefore requires research attention for its total description.

The purpose of scientific investigation is to find out peculiarities of a clergyman lingual image verbalization which is modeled in the Ukrainian phraseological picture of the world. The necessity to fill in the following lacuna indicates the fact that such an important piece of the conceptual sphere "Religion", which is the image of clergymen, also remains unreseached nowadays that is the task of the paper. The exception is C. Ref’s research work [Бібла 1997], where the composition, source and ways of clerical terminology formation are analyzed on the basis of the church ranks and positions names.

It is considered that phraseological phrases – units of communicative nature take part in the formation of expressions and exchange of ideas that is an integral part of communication. One of the characteristic features of the proverbs is that it not only establishes certain things states or human traits ("like this happens"), offers a certain course of action ("should or should not do like that"), but also gives the estimation to them ("is good and it's bad") [Приймачок 2004: 240], i.e. proverbs contain the evaluation of the information contents on the basis of which are the emotional factors.

In most of them lexeme піn is used to denote generalized image of clergyman which is the popular name of the priest. Obviously, the very name is negatively connotated, as it can be attached to those words (церква, дячиха, попик, etc.) which express a minimal degree of Christian religious evaluation.The importance of the clerical figure for the Ukrainian linguoculture is indicated by the quantity of the phraseological phrases group denoting religious persons, particularly in the "Galician-Russian folk proverb" there have been recorded 79 proverbs with lexeme піп collected and interpreted by I. Frankо, the book "Ukrainian folk proverbs", edited by M. Rylsky (1955), contained 73 examined proverbs, and the "Ukrainian Proverbs and Sayings" by E. Zubkov (1984) includes more than 60 units.

According to T. Cosmedа, Christian religious evaluation – "is the estimation when the formation of human spirituality is shown, the desire to improve the soul, to the right way of life (grade religious, places of worship, priests, religious rites items, etc.)" [Космеда 2000: 99]. Especially noticeable this negative lexeme connotation nin in the comparison with its stylistically neutral borrowed canonical terms священик, пресвітер, ієрей or even folk positively connotated отець, панотець, батюшка. It seems that even this fact indirectly confirms that in the Ukrainian mentality, as well as in the Ukrainian phraseological world picture the image of the priest is represented quite critically, and in most cases proverbs reflect humorous, ironical or even sarcastically connotated meanings according to the national specificity of the Ukrainian character. It will be recalled that "ironical expressions – expressions of no literal meaning, which are the indirect speech acts with the emotional component. Proverbs and Sayings of ironic meaning as a variety of such expressions include even more emotional loading as thoughts are expressed in a proper witty way"[Гуйванюк 2004: 26], for example, expression recorded by I. Frankо: Піп – Дух святий при нас!, is ironic. There is the following commentary: "They speak scared as about evil spirit, is understood ironically" [ГРНП: 541]; Піп не Бог, поліція не війт – "Talk mocking at" [ГРНП: 542].

Irony, combined with a negative evaluation, is realised in a number of other proverbs that verbalise priest negative features of the character such as ambition (Аби лиш два попи на світі жило, то ще б їм затісно було), insincerity, two-facedness (Не вір попові, як псові; Піп з Богом говорить, а на чорта дивиться; Убрався піп у ризу, а чорт в рядно, і говорять одно; Піп гроші збирає, а чорт калитку шиє; Сюди хрестом, а туди хвостом; Піп каже: Слухай моїх слів, а не пильнуй моїх діл; Роби теє, що піп каже, а не роби теє, що піп робить; Читає: «Да буде воля Твоя», а дума: «Якби моя» and others); greediness (Не годен попа наситити, як дірявого міха; Піп з дяком, воба вовчі горла; У попа здачі, а в кравця остачі не питай; Краще з ведмедем борюкатися, як з попом боргуватися; Попу оддай діжу з тістом, то він тісто вибере і тобі очі видере; У попа здачі, як у шевця остачі and others); silverlikeness (За гроші піп і чорта поцілує; Піп Наум навів бабу на ум: баба порося продала, а гроші попові дала; У попа завжди долоня свербить; У попа крам – пекло й рай, що хочеш, те й вибирай and others).

As you can see, when creating these proverbs their author – the people – selects vocabulary belonging to different, often opposing LSG (піп – пес, Бог – чорт, піп – чорт, піп – ведмідь and others), that gives opportunity to increase expressiveness of the whole phrase. It is the way to improve expressive power of the expression Y. Bilodid indicates "while selecting lexics that belongs to different, often incompatible lexical and thematic groups, and creating with its help striking stylistic means, the author reaches and increases the expressiveness of the text (its growth increases depending on degree of remoteness subject-semantic spheres), sets the general ironic tone throughout the work" [Білодід 1981: 71].

The similar tendency is traced in proverbs which point to such personality traits of clergymen as gluttonizeness. For example, the proverb "До роботи поп, а до їдла хлоп" can be used to describe any person not involved in religion, but it is quite clear that most speakers perceive the priest as the one who does not like to work, but loves to eat. Actually I. Franko submits this commentary: "The Priest does hard work and eats well" [ГРНП: 540]. The other proverbs express the same traits of the priests: У попа дна нема – "Of insatiable priest" [ГРНП: 543]; Знехотя піп і порося з’їв; Попа одним обідом не нагодуєш; Тікайте, кури, піп іде! and others.

According to folk beliefs, verbalized in folklore, the clergyman position of middle degree (піп) is very profitable, "warm", as indicated, in particular, by І. Franko. Giving the commentary to the paremia Нема то як попові і котові, Franko said: "Both are looking for the warmest place" [ГРНП: 541]. This explanation is also in the similar proverbs Нема нікому так добре на світі, як попові та котові: обидва лежать та хліб дурно їдять. This appears to be due to the fact that, in comparison with the farmers the priest does not make any physical effort to obtain "daily bread", which other phraseological phrases, recorded by I. Frankо confirms: Не робив піп на хліб, та й не буде [ГРНП: 541].

The method of earning a living for the priest – his activities: conducting mass, exercise needs and sacraments (baptism, wedding, funeral, etc.). In the minds of the laymen there is a perception that their donations are mainly for the priest needs, therefore, become for him an easy way to make money: Попові йде і печене, і варене, і з живого, і з умерлого – "Characteristic priests of income" [ГРНП: 542]; Богу слава, а попові шмат сала; Дурневі чудо, а попові хліб; Миша в стіжку не загине, а піп на селі; Навіщо попові гармошка, коли в нього є кадило; Ніхто не знає натуру попову: три слова скаже, а бере корову; Чудо попові, як злодієві крадений кінь and others.

People strongly blame extortion priests: Піп бере, і дере, і тікає. This paremias I. Franko commented as follows "expression of the Priest-pancakes" [ГРНП: 541]. It is outlined specific negative lingual image – priest Derun. Particularly striking are proverbs which highlight on the direct connection of priest prosperity with people’s grief (Людське горе попа годує), espessially with death because during the burial service he takes the money: Попові завжди панахида сниться and others. It is clear that this perception of the priest criticizes his mental abilities: Нема дурнішого від попа: люди плачуть, а він співає. Thus, the semantic component of preast lingual image is its folly.

In folk wisdom states that to possess such an advantageous position was possible only with the money: Коли маєш сто кіп, то будеш піп – "Mention of ancient priests, who were the richest men in the village and able to buy a bishop consecration by the priest" [ГРНП: 540]. Possible complaints of the priests on their hard fate are perceived ironically because despite their complaints the rank of the priest was passed from generation to generation, obviously not without mercantile considerations: Коби ніхто не діждав бути попом, тілько я і мої діти – "Joyful selfpraise. Earlier the rank of the priest was passed from parents to children " [ГРНП: 540].

It is clear that traditional morality condemns materialism, especially among priests, and therefore there are expressions like Нехай їх Бог розумить, тоті наші попи – the watchful eye of the peasants could not but catch such trait of individual clergymen as haughtiness. This applies, in particular, to unhealthy ambitious priests and pastors with arrogant attitude to rural parishes priests Не знає піп із села, що піп міський – "An allusion to the ancient distinction between rural and urban clergy, when city clergy recruited from privileged layers gentry and proudly looked at the simple rural clergy" [ГРНП: 540]. The negative attitude of the peasants to priests is reproduced through the series of national signs recorded in the "Galician-Russian folk proverb". Despite the fact that the Church condemns all superstitions the clergymen appeared in the center of verbalized negative perceptions of ordinary people. This applies in particular about the signs, according to which one sees the priest in a dream – to the enemy: Піп коли присниться, то значить до ворога [ГРНП: 541].

Ukrainians believed that to see the priest crossing the road is to failure. It is characteristic of both Ukrainian and Russian linguoculture that indicated by I. Franko: Піп злий на перехід; за ним треба навідліг соломи кинути – "People's beliefs. Faith in harmful priest transition is generally expanded. Compare Dahl I, 132 " [ГРНП: 541]. It is interesting to know that the sign apparently was relevant in the second half of the twentieth century in Soviet cities, as it was used by S. Marshak in his comic poem for children "Приметы" where the girl Valya, gathering to the exam, closely followed all the signs, believing that when «я в троллейбус новый сяду на Садовой», «в пути не встречу ни единой кошки», «не покажется священник в нашем переулке», «я зашью монеты в фартух под оборки,  То по всем моим приметам, Получу по всем предметам Круглые пятерки!…» [ Marshak 1999: 46-47]. Obviously, negative impression stores longer in the popular mind, especially concerning the priest with insufficient intelligence that was fixed in phraseological phrases of the following type Дурний піп хрестив, та в помийницю впустив; Дурний піп – дурна його й молитва; Дурний тебе піп хрестив, та й портки над тобою спустив – "Jokingly say not only to the stupid men, but anyone who says some nonsense" [ГРНП: 540].

However, there is an implicit indication in proverbs that not all priests are the same, like other people there are good and wicked, smart and stupid, etc.: Який піп, така його й парафія; Який піп, таке й благословення. According to I. Franko, the expression Піп на тото і є, щоб прахтики розповідав describes the priest as an educated intelligent person who can give another man a good piece of advice: "He has a higher education and can tell something about the wider world" [ГРНП: 541].

Some proverbs the keyword of which indicates a lower degree of the priesthood (clerk) have a "sympathetic tone". Folklore verbalizes mostly poor church server of the lower level: Не кожен дячок має усе повний горщок; Пан піддячий любить борщ гарячий, а як голодний – то їсть і холодний. Unlike the priest, clerk is the one who has little earning though performs his duties properly: Піп лиш писне, а тисне, а дяк реве, а мало бере – "during God services clerk sings much more than the priest but the latter gets considerably more than the clerk"[ГРНП: 542].

However, thanks to the belonging of this rank to the lowest level of the church clerk is considered as "underpriest": На безлюдді і дяк чоловік. Deakon is verbalized as the one who tries to influence the laymen, even his speech can be nipping: Дяк, що будяк: хоч трошки, та вколе.

So, in the Ukrainian phraseological world picture the clergyman image is verbalized in general mostly in the negative way. He is represented as greedy, insincere, ambitious, foolish, and indifferent to others. Phraseological phrases of the type Який піп, така його й парафія; Який піп, таке й благословення characterize the priest positively to show that no social group is a monolith as for certain traits. Ironical characteristic of the clergyman, his negative rating is motivated by the fact that in the popular mind, the Ukrainian mentality that image is seen primarily not as a mediator between God and the laymen but as the person with his vices.

The perspective seems axiological research of the conceptual images "Religion" verbalized in phraseological world picture of the Ukrainians.

 

References. 

References

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Космеда 2000: Космеда, Т. Аксіологічні аспекти прагмалінгвістики [Текст] / Тетяна Космеда. – Львів : ЛНУ ім. Івана Франка, 2000. – 350 с. – Бібліогр. : с. 312-335. – ISBN 966-613-131-5.

Приймачок 2004: Приймачок, О. Модальна метафора в українських пареміях [Текст] / Оксана Приймачок // Вісник Львівського університету. Серія філологічна. – Львів : Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка, 2004. – Вип. 34, Ч. І. – С. 239-243. – Бібліогр. : с. 243.

Скаб 2010: Скаб, М. Основні напрями дослідження взаємодії української мови і сфери сакрального: здобутки та перспективи [Текст] / Марія Скаб // Науковий вісник Чернівецького національного університету імені Юрія Федьковича : збірник наукових праць. – Чернівці : Чернівецький національний університет, 2010. – Вип. 506-508 : Слов’янська філологія. – С. 3-10. – Бібліогр. : с. 9-10.

 

Sources and Abbreviations

ГРНП 1910 : Галицько-руські народні приповідки : [у 3 т] [Текст] / [зібрав, упорядкував і пояснив Др. Іван Франко] – Львів : Друкарня Наукового товариства імені Шевченка, 1910. − Т. 3.  699 с.

Маршак 1999 : Маршак, С. Друзья-товарищи [Текст] / С. Маршак. – М. : Махаон, 1999. – 76 с. – (Золотая серия). – ISBN 5-88215-685-8.

УНПП 1955: Українські народні прислів’я та приказки] [Текст] / [упорядники В. Бобкова, Ф. Лавров та ін. ; відпов. редактор М. Т. Рильський]. – К. : Видавництво Академії наук Української РСР, 1955. – 446 с.

УПП 1984: Українські прислів’я та приказки [Текст] / [упорядкування С. В. Мишанича та М. М. Пазяка]. – К. : Дніпро, 1984. – 390 с. – (Б-ка укр. усної творчості).

 

У статті розглянуто мовний образ священнослужителя, зафіксований в українській паремійній картині світу. Проаналізовано засоби репрезентації священика, визначено загальні тенденції моделювання негативної конотації в пареміях на основі актуалізації негативної оцінки, що зафіксовано в мовній свідомості українців, їх ментальності.

Ключові слова: мовний образ, паремія, паремійна картина світу, конотація, негативна оцінка, мовна свідомість, ментальність.

Available 17 September 2013.