Nonce Words in Fantasy Genre: Lexicoraphic Aspect

 © The Editorial Team of Linguistic Studies

Linguistic Studies
Volume 28, 2014, pp. 66-73

Nonce Words in Fantasy Genre: Lexicoraphic Aspect

Inna Denisova

Article first published online: April 03, 2014 


Additional information

 Author Information: 

Inna V. Denisova is Post-Graduate Student (specialty 10.02.15 "General Linguistics"), the Teacher at Department of English Philology in Petro Mohyla Black Sea State University. Correspondence: denisova-777@mail.ru

Citation: 
Denisova, I. Nonce Words in Fantasy Genre: Lexicoraphic Aspect [Text] / I. Denisova // Linguistic Studies collection of scientific papers / Donetsk National University Ed. by A. P. Zahnitko. – Donetsk : DonNU, 2014. – Vol. 28. – Pp. 66-73. – ISBN 966-7277-88-7

Publication History:
Volume first published online: April 03, 2014

Article received: September 27, 2013, accepted: December 26, 2013 and first published online: April 03, 2014

Annotation.

TThe article is devoted to neography, its history, origin and main aspects of studying. One of the problems, which arouse in this area, is lexicographic interpretation of new speech units, mainly nonce words. Some principles of the lexicographing of the nonce words, which function in the fantasy genre, are suggested.

Keywords: neology, neography, lexicography, nonce word, occasional word, fantasy, dictionary entry.



Abstract.

NONCE WORDS IN FANTASY GENRE: LEXICORAPHIC ASPECT

Inna Denisova

Department of English Philology, Institute of Philology, Petro Mohyla Black Sea State University, Mykolaiv, Mykolaiv region, Ukraine

 

Available 27 September 2013.

 

Abstract

Relevance

One of the most important questions in the branch of neography is the problem of lexicographic interpretation of occasional units, which are presented in fantasy, because this genre becomes more and more popular every year. A great amount of books was published, scripts were written, films and games created, etc. Very often a reader, who doesn’t know the language of original, faces the problem of incomprehension of author’s vocabulary, so it became possible to solve this problem with the help of the dictionary of such formations, which are introduced in fantasy and in different languages.

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to analyze the main works and achievements in the field of nonce words neography, to create the basic principles of lexicographic interpretation of the nonce words and to structure the dictionary entries of such words, which are taken from German, English, Ukrainian and Russian fantasy.

Tasks

The purpose raises the following tasks: 1) analysis of the works, connected with the neography and lexicographic interpretation; 2) establishment of new principles of lexicographic interpretation of the nonce words; 3) creation of the dictionary entries of the nonce words, taken from the fantasy novels.

Theoretical value

The theoretical value of the study is shown by the list of new principles of lexicographing of nonce words.

Practical value

The developed principles give an opportunity to create a unique lexicographic work of fantasy genre, which is going to contain not only the explanations of the nonce words, but word-building part and some additional information about its author or book, where the occasional word was found.

Conclusion

Lexicographic interpretation of occasional formation, especially by foreign author, has to be complex and include not only semantic, associative, grammatical and word-building aspects, but also pay attention to the translation of the author’s words. Besides, every dictionary entry has to contain illustration, which helps with the interpretation of a nonce word. The author of this dictionary has to give a definition of a word and, if it is necessary, insert some additional extralinguistic cultural information, different commentaries, which will help in the perception of artistic work by the reader.

Perspective

The perspective of the further research in this area can be the interpretation and lexicographing of occasional words in other genres of literature and the studying of the problems, connected with the translation of nonce words into Ukrainian and Russian.

 

Research highlights

This article is devoted to neography, its history, origin and main aspects of studying. ► One of the problems, which arouse in this area is lexicographic interpretation of new speech units, mainly nonce words. ► There are suggested some principles of the lexicographing of nonce words, which function in the fantasy genre.

Keywords: neology, neography, lexicography, nonce word, occasional word, fantasy, dictionary entry.

 

References

Babenko, N. G. (1997). Okkazional'noe v hudozhestvennom tekste. Strukturno-semanticheskij analiz. Kaliningrad: KGU.

Bragina, A. A. (1974). Recenzija na knigu: Lopatin V. V. Rozhdenie slova: Neologizmy i okkazional'nye obrazovanija. Russkij jazyk v shkole, 1974, 3, 111-114.

Vokal'chuk, H. M. (2011). Zdobutky i perspektyvy ukrayins'koyi indyvidual'no-avtors'koyi neohrafiyi. Nezhasymyy SLOVOSVIT: zbirnyk naukovykh prats' na poshanu profesora V.S. Kalashnyka. Kharkiv, 208-217.

Dubichinskij, V. V. (2008). Leksikografija russkogo jazyka. Moskva: Nauka: Flinta.

Emec, D. A. (2002). Tanja Grotter i magicheskij kontrabas. Moskva: Jeksmo.

Koloyiz, Zh. V. (2012). Okazionalizmy v leksykohrafiyi. Filolohichni studiyi, 2012, 8, 97-114.

Lopatin, V. V. (1973). Rozhdenie slova: Neologizmy i okkazional'nye obrazovanija. Мoskva: Nauka.

Lykov, A. G. (1976). Sovremennaja russkaja leksikologija (russkoe okkazional'noe slovo). Moskva: Nauka.

Oldi, H. L. & Dyachenko, M. & Dyachenko, S. (2005). Pentakl'. Kyyiv.

Popova, T. V. (2005). Russkaja neologija i neografija. Ekaterinburg: GOU VPO UGTU-UPI.

Solohub, N. M. (1999). Slovotvorennya Yara Slavutycha. Movnyy portret Yara Slavutycha. Kyyiv, 45-111.

Shherba, L. V. (1974). Opyt obshhej teorii leksikografii. Jazykovaja sistema i rechevaja dejatel'nost'. Moskva: Nauka, 265-304.

Ende, M. (1998). Die Unendliche Geschichte. Stuttgart: Thienemanns Verlag.

Rowling, J.K. (2000). Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone. London: Bloomsbury Publishing PLC.

 

Correspodence: denisova-777@mail.ru

Vitae

Inna V. Denisova is Post-Graduate Student (specialty 10.02.15 "General Linguistics"), the Teacher at Department of English Philology in Petro Mohyla Black Sea State University. Her areas of research interests include lexicology, cognitive linguistics, and linguo-culturological study.


Article.

 

Inna Denisova

УДК 81’38:82-252

NONCE WORDS IN FANTASY GENRE: LEXICORAPHIC ASPECT

 

The article is devoted to neography, its history, origin and main aspects of studying. One of the problems, which arouse in this area, is lexicographic interpretation of new speech units, mainly nonce words. Some principles of the lexicographing of the nonce words, which function in the fantasy genre, are suggested.

Keywords: neology, neography, lexicography, nonce word, occasional word, fantasy, dictionary entry.

 

Dynamic development of language, its changeability and constant renovation are considered to be one of the key aspects of studying of contemporary linguists. Scientific achievements within this sphere laid the foundation of new linguistic branch – neology and later its part – neography. Neology as a science appeared in XXth c., however, the term itself became current in scientific discourse at the beginning of XIXth c., in 1801, in the work “Neology or the dictionary of new words, which are liable to renovation and words which are used with new meanings” by L. Mercier. Firstly the term “neology” was realized as a number or a set of new words. Later, neology was considered a science, a separate branch of linguistics that has its own terminology, history, outlook and the subject of research: neologisms.

The problem of lexicographic analysis of neologisms is studied within one aspect of neology – neography. According to Russian linguist V.V. Dubitchinskiy, whose works are dedicated to lexicography, the main aim of neography is “to keep up with language development and try to fix and arrange all the novelties, which appear in it” [Дубичинский 2008: 218]. Neography as a science includes a wide range of problems: the inclusion of innovations to another edition of literary language, the creation of appendixes to the dictionaries, which were published earlier, the creation of special dictionaries of new words. One of the types of the new vocabulary is the nonce words or as they are called by the native linguists “occasional words”.

The purpose of the article is to analyze the main works and achievements in the field of the nonce words neography and to create the basic principles of lexicographic interpretation of the nonce words, and to structure the dictionary entries of such words from German, English, Ukrainian and Russian fantasy.

The purpose raises the following tasks: 1) analysis of the works, connected with the neography and lexicographic interpretation; 2) establishment of new principles of lexicographic interpretation of the nonce words; 3) creation of the dictionary entries of the nonce words, taken from the fantasy novels.

The importance of studying new words and phrases was realized by the lexicographers. However, the research in the field of lexicography began only in the middle of XXth c. At this time the new principles and branches of neology were developed, as well as the new neologic dictionaries of different types and genres were created.

N.Z. Kotelova broadens the mentioned classification in her works, adding “annuals”, “ten-year dictionaries”, “bank of Russian neologisms”, which include two previous types, and “Dictionary of new words of Russian language of 50th-80th”, which was created by herself. Of late years the dictionaries, which describe mainly word-formative characteristics of new words, were appeared. These dictionaries are called derivative, e.g. “The reverse derivative dictionary of Russian new formations” edited by L.A. Kudryavtseva. This dictionary includes word-formative innovations, semantic derivatives, semantic tracings, and phraseological units. The name “reverse” is not accidental, because the words in this dictionary are put down by A/Z, but according to the endings of words. Materials of such dictionaries are clustered by the principle of the sameness of their last formants. Such lexicographic work makes possible the study of the groups with certain affix and using quantitative method to determine the degree of productivity of one or another affix. “The word-formative dictionary of Russian neologisms” edited by M.N. Zolotaryova is formed by another model and unites neologisms by the principle of resemblance of their roots.The famous researcher of neologic problems A.O. Bragina suggests distinguishing the three types of neologic dictionaries, which represent three periods of the life of a word, i.e. the way of the single use of a word to its general use. According to A.O. Bragina, the first stage of the life of a word is its appearance in the person’s speech, the second period begins at the moment of its penetration into the listener’s speech and the third part of its existence takes place when this word is fixed in the customary usage. In compliance with these periods the researcher distinguishes “annual” dictionaries (those which are taken as new ones, they have just appeared in speech and are accidentally found in periodicals and recorded speech). The second type is dictionaries, also known as “reference books”, which put down the words reproduced in speech and include a ten-year supply of new words. “Neologic thesauri” are considered the third type of lexicographic works. Such type of dictionaries retraces the lexical material of several generations and includes new vocabulary, which is fixed in the usage, but it was not put down into any academic thesauri [Брагина 1974: 111-114].

Thus, new words are mainly represented by neologisms and their lexicographic interpretation is shown in a number of dictionaries, because these units appear in many spheres: in scientific discourse, in social and political essays, in everyday speech, etc. Though, one of the main spheres of speech is fiction, which reflects the general development of language. The desire of writers for finding their own stylistic devices causes the appearance of one of the neologic notions – individual author’s formations: nonce words.

Nonce words appear because of some factors. The main one is the try of fictional writers to find unusual stylistic devices. Nonce words are formed on the basis of productive and unproductive models. Though, the rules of particular model may get broken, this fact does not bring down the level of expressiveness of the nonce words. Some occasional formations can later on come to the class of canonical words. It means that they are fixed in language because of the popularity of some book, but substantially they remain in the capacity of speech units. This is one of the essential characteristics of the nonce words, which were distinguished by A.G. Lykov. Among them has to be mentioned irreproducibility (unlike customary words for occasional ones every particular act of its use is a unique case of its realization). Singleness is another feature of the nonce words, which is closely related to the mentioned characteristic. According to this peculiarity occasional formation is created only for the single time of its use in speech [Лыков 1976].

Thus, the nonce word is expressive, single, substandard formation, and is considered as a speech phenomenon, so it cannot be put down into the dictionary. However, the problem of lexicographing of occasional words arises in the course of its detailed studying. Despite the fact that neography concentrates on neologisms, without paying any attention to the other new formations, which appear in language. Occasional vocabulary wasn’t studied attentively, because these words are not widely used. Though, the problem of creation of occasional dictionary was raised by the linguists. A lot of researchers paid attention to this question in their works in the XXth c. For instance, L.V. Sherba, while making up the classification of main lexicographic sources and explaining their nature on the basis of contrasting, lays emphasis on the fact that “thesaurus” has to contain not only standard, widely used vocabulary, but occasional layer of lexemes [Щерба 1974].

Some of N.I. Feldman’s investigations were also devoted to this topic. The scientist suggested making up the dictionary of original words, but this work wasn’t created, because occasional formations are rarely used in everyday speech. However, over a long period of time nonce words appeared in some dictionaries but in the group of neologisms. Only seldom the dictionary entry contained a note “occas.”.

V.V. Lopatin also lays emphasis on the problem of lexicographing of the nonce words, trying to find another direction in their studying. The scientist specifies the range of occasional units, emphasizing the importance of studying the author’s vocabulary within neography, because, according to the researcher, new author’s words are an important stylistic device and so to speak a visiting card of individual author’s style [Лопатин 1973: 147]. Many scientists, while studying some literary works of a writer, have made attempts to create different dictionaries of special author’s vocabulary.

For instance, the researcher of A. Belyj’s individual style T.V. Popova makes an attempt to create such dictionary. She uses as a basis the principles of word-formation of the author’s occasional vocabulary. So, she distinguishes the most productive and unproductive author’s ways of building his own nonce words. The dictionary entry of A. Belyj’s speech consists of the following items: a headword, possible forms, a stress, references to the works where it was found, the date of its creation, which concurs with the date when the work was written, a part of speech, motivating word (written with a note “MC” – “MW”), the way of word-formation (written with a note “CO” – “WW”) and associations, which are somehow connected with a word (written with a note “AC” – “AS”). The category of associations contains some additional information about the word itself and its context. These principles are shown in the entry from the dictionary of T.V. Popova:

(1) Царедворчество /3/ [СЛМ НВ 217]; 1932; С <сн>; МС: царь, двор, творчество;
СО: слс; АС: творение царского двора; И, забывши о том, что я невзрачный студент, подхожу к кругло выточенному "царедворчеству"
[Попова 2005: 80].

Kingscourtness /3/ [SLM NV 217]; 1932; S <sn>; MW: king, court, creativeness; WW: c.d; AS: the creation of king’s court; And, having forgotten, that I’m an ordinary student, I’m coming to round-turned “kingscourtness”.

The principles, which this lexicographic interpretation was based on, are, in our opinion, full and motivated enough, but there are some principles, which can be difficult for understanding, e.g. the category of associations is not enough for the explanation of a word. To our mind, it would be more effective to include a broader interpretation of a nonce word. Besides, a dictionary entry contains a great amount of abbreviations, which can complicate its understanding by the ordinary readers.

By the similar principle, but by the opposite structure are classified the lexicographic materials introduced in the N.M. Sologub’s monograph “The Jar Slavutich’s language portrait”, where the occasional formations are introduced in the alphabetical order and divided into groups by the principle of belonging to the particular parts of speech. These groups are explained from the point of view of the word-building models and illustrated by the context, which is very important for the interpretation of the nonce words. The scientist doesn’t use any abbreviations and explains the nonce words and the way of their word-building very simply, e.g. «гербозневажник» утворилося від «зневажати герби» (“armsdisrespector” – came from “to disrespect the arms”). Besides, this dictionary includes the author’s information about the writer, which does not only disclose the meaning and the aim of appearance of a particular nonce word, but introduces the writer as a personality [Сологуб 1999: 54].

Thus, the studying of lexicographic interpretation of the nonce words is basically introduced by the analysis of the one particular author’s vocabulary. Such works are written by the reason of detailed studying of the author’s creative work. Besides, some of the nonce words are included into neologic dictionaries. But there was still no extensive work devoted to the occasional neography, which can cover the broader aspects of the nonce words and their functioning. Although there are no common principles, which the occasional dictionary entry is based on, as every scientist develop them according to the nature of writer’s lexical occasional fund. One of the attempts of systematization of such principles is the work of N.G. Babenko [Бабенко 1997: 16-17]. This work contains some rules and advice which have to be followed while making up the dictionary of the nonce words. The scientist suggests the following rules of making up such dictionaries:

1. The dictionary has to be not only explanatory but word-building.

2. The dictionary has to include the most productive types of individual word-building.

3. The question about the place of the nonce words in the language system has to be clarified.

4. The main principles of functioning of these words in the artistic speech have to be represented.

5. The dictionary has to represent the history of a nonce word (the author, the time of its appearance, the cases of its borrowing).

In the work, which is devoted to the analysis of occasional vocabulary, G.M. Vokaltchuk suggests some characteristics of their lexicographing:

-  the interpretation of meaning of author’s lexical formations;

-  the definition of the part of speech;

-  the description of grammatical forms of ALF;

-  the comparative aspects of descriptions [Вокальчук 2011: 213].

Some of these principles were also developed by Russian researcher O.A. Alexandrova. On their basis was studied a big amount of texts of the XXth c., which was named “The dictionary of the Russian poetry of XXth c.”

Another researcher, who is actively working in the area of occasional neography, is J.V. Koloiz, who made an attempt to classify Ukrainian occasional vocabulary, which was picked up from the fictional works, periodicals and colloquial speech. “The explanatory and word-building dictionary of the nonce words” gives the definitions of occasional formations and, according to the researcher, displays “their derivative base and formant; with their help the occasional derivatives are produced” [Колоїз 2012: 108-109]. The dictionary entry has to contain two aspects: linguistic and word-formative analysis. The first one includes grammatical characteristics, definition, context and a passport system. The context can be introduced by the sentences, extracts and separate words. The definition can be created in two ways: descriptively and with the help of synonyms. The second part contains word-formative analysis of a nonce word and its word-building structure. Besides, the researcher distinguishes semantic and lexical nonce words and marks the first ones with the help of “*”, e.g.

(2) Бося́к*, а, ч. жарт. Той, хто не є босом, керівником; підлеглий. Про всяк випадок, – зареготав Бидл. – Щоб не забув, хто бос, а хто босяк (А. Крижанівський). Бос + як ← бос/ø [Колоїз 2012: 109].

Antiboss, humor. That one, who is not a boss; inferior. Just in case, laughed Biddle loudly. – So that you don’t forget who is boss and who is antiboss. Anti + boss.

(3) Бризкошýм, у, ч. Сукупність різноманітних звуків дрібних частинок твердого тіла, що розлітаються від удару. А град од стін і від землі одскакувать пішов, мов стукотом підкований – у шумі, в бризках, у бризкошумі, мов стукотом підкований (П. Тичина). Бризк + о + шум ← бризк/ø, шум/ø [Колоїз 2012: 109].

Splashynoise, m. The number of different sounds, small parts of solid body, which come apart because of breaking. The hail began to jump aside of walls, like shoed by clop – in noise, in splashes, in splashynoise, like shoed by clop. (P. Tytchyna)

Splashy + noise [Колоїз 2012: 109].

This dictionary, in our opinion, fully discloses the meaning of Ukrainian occasional words and word combinations. This work is an indisputable achievement in the area of lexicographic interpretation of occasional formations, but such kind of work has to be constantly renewed and developed, because every living language is always enriched by new words, and by the nonce words, which appear in many aspects of the human life, because they are the unique phenomena and are the characteristic feature of some literary genres. One of them is fantasy; the writers of this genre very actively develop occasional word-building.

This new genre gives authors an opportunity to make up in the literary work an imaginary world with the original system of characters, events and the places of their course. The peculiarity of this genre is that it induces the writer to create some stylistic devices, which are used for diversifying the artistic space of the literary works – imaginary languages, alphabets, glossaries, names of some characters, etc. Every nonce word is a source of knowledge; it performs artistic and nominative functions and is a key to the author’s culture and people, which open the essence of its values, traditions, customs and thus gives a reader the hidden information. That is why one of the most important questions in this sphere is the problem of lexicographic interpretation of occasional units, which are presented in fantasy, because this genre becomes more and more popular every year. A great amount of books was published, scripts were written, films and games created, etc. Very often a reader, who doesn’t know the language of original, faces the problem of incomprehension of author’s vocabulary, so it became possible to solve this problem with the help of the dictionary of such formations, which are introduced in fantasy and in different languages.

Today, there are a lot of fantasy works in different countries, which are admired not only by native speakers, but by foreign readers all over the world. Therefore, it appeared to be reasonable to make up a dictionary, which would make it possible to make a complete interpretation of some well-known works of this genre and understand the nature of fantasy in whole.

Taking into account above mentioned works, devoted to the lexicographing of the nonce words, we suggest the following principles for making up the dictionary entries of occasional formations of the fantasy:

-   the identification of the part of speech;

-   the indication of grammatical characteristics;

-   giving the translation, which contains the name of translator of a nonce word;

-   the definition of occasional word;

-   giving the illustrations, which gives the explanation of the occasional word and contains the name of the author and the name of the work, which occasional word functions in;

-   giving the date of its appearance;

-   the indication of its way of word-building, which is marked in the dictionary entry with “*”;

-   giving the additional information, which is marked with “”.

Thus, the dictionary of the nonce words has to be explanatory, word-formative and associative.

Here are several dictionary entries in different languages which represent the mentioned principles:

(4) Haulewald, sub., sg., m, - (e)s, pl.wälder – Совиний Ліс (пер. Ю. Прохаська, 2008). Назва лісу, що знаходиться у казковій країні Фантазії. Alles Getier im Haulewald duckte sich in seine Höhlen, Nester und Schlupflöcher. (M. EndeDie Unendliche Geschichte”, 1979) Уся звірина в Совиному Лісі принишкла у своїх норах, барлогах і гніздах.

* Основоскладання: Haul - e + Wald = люксемб. haulen від німецьк. heulen – вити, завивати, ухати (про сову), нім. der Wald, m, -( e)s – ліс.

Саме така назва казкового лісу використана автором невипадково, оскільки ліс є густим, темним, страшним та населений різними жахливими істотами, крім того в ньому дуже легко заблукати, що і трапилось з героями твору. Перекладач використовує назву «совиний», оскільки сова асоціюється саме з темрявою, а її «ухання» часто лякає людину.

(5) Haulewald, sub., sg., m, - (e)s, pl.wälder – Howling Forest (trans. Ralph Manheim, 1983). The name of the forest, which is situated in the fairy land Fantastica. Alles Getier im Haulewald duckte sich in seine Höhlen, Nester und Schlupflöcher. (M. EndeDie Unendliche Geschichte”, 1979). All the beasts in the Howling Forest were safe in their caves, nests and burrows.

* Compounding: Haul - e + Wald = Luxemb. haulen from Germ. heulen – howl, hoot (about an owl), Germ. der Wald, m, -(e)s – forest.

This name of the forest is not used accidentally, as the forest is dense, dark and scary; it is inhabited by different terrible creatures, besides it is very easy to get lost there, and the characters did it. The Ukrainian translator uses the name “owlish”, because the owl is associated with the darkness and its hooting scares a person, while the American translator uses the direct English equivalent of the word “haulen”.

(6) phantasisch (-e) [Reich], adj., – цісарство Фантазія (пер. Ю. Прохаська, 2008). Той, що стосується казкової країни Фантазії, фантастичний. Im ganzen grenzenlosen phantasischen Reich gab es niemand, gegen den sie [die Kindliche Kaiserin] sich hätte schützen müssen. (M. EndeDie Unendliche Geschichte”, 1979) Адже в цілому безмежному цісарстві Фантазія не було нікого, кого вона [Дитинна Царівна] мала би боятися.

* Суфіксальний: phantas + -isch = нім. die Phantasie, = .. sien - фантазія, суф. -isch.

У німецькій мові нормативним є слово “phantastish” – фантастичний.

phantasisch (-e) [Reich], adj., reaches of Fantastica (trans. Ralph Manheim, 1983). That one, which refers to the fairy land Fantastica, fantastic. Im ganzen grenzenlosen phantasischen Reich gab es niemand, gegen den sie [die Kindliche Kaiserin] sich hätte schützen müssen. (M. EndeDie Unendliche Geschichte”, 1979). In all the unbounded reaches of Fantastica there was no one who would have thought of attacking her [the Childlike Empress].

* Derivation: phantas + -isch = Germ. die Phantasie, = .. sienfantasy, suff. -isch.

In German the normative word is “phantastish”fantastic.

(7) Remembrall, n, sg. нагадайко (transl. V. Morozova, 2004). Чарівна куля, яка світиться, коли чарівник щось забуває. (A magic ball, which glows, in case when a magician forgets about smth.) “It's a Remembrall! he explained.you hold it tight like this and if it turns red oh...” His face fell, because the Remembrall had suddenly glowed scarlet. (J.K. Rowling “Harry Potter and the Pholosopher’s Stone”, 1998) Це Нагадайко!пояснив він. … його треба отак міцно тримати і, якщо він червоніє, значить, ви щось забулиОх!..Невіл роззявив рота, бо Нагадайко раптом став яскраво‑червоним…

* Основоскладання (складноскорочене слово). – Compounding (abbreviated word): remembr + all = англ. remember, v. – пам’ятати, згадувати; ball, n. – куля, м’яч.

(8) черномагический, прил., -ая, -ое, -иетой, що належить до чорної магіїї. Сильные заклятия, они почти что все черномагические... (Д. Емец «Таня Гроттер и магический контрабас», 2002).

* Основоскладання: черн + о + маг + -ическ + ий = черный, прил., магия, сущ. ж.р. ед.ч., суф. -ическ, оконч. -ий.

Black-magic, adj. – that one, which refers to black magic. The powerful spells, they are all black-magic… (D. Jemets “Tanya Grotter and magic contrabass”, 2002)

* Compounding: black + magic = black, adj., magic, n., sg.

(9) приварок, ім., у, ч. – додаток, додатковий заробіток. Юрб біля парадного під’їзду не очікувалося, але гарний приварок до пенсії не зашкодить. (Г.Л. Олді, Марина та Сергій Дяченки «Пентакль», 2005)

при - + вар + -ок- = преф. при-, варити – д., варю, вариш, недок., перех., суф. -ок-. © Префіксально-суфіксальний.

Слово знаходиться на межі понять семантичного оказіоналізму та просторіччя.

Extracooking, n., addition, additional earnings. The crowds near the main entrance were not expected, but a good extracooking to the retired pay won’t do any harm. (G.L. Oldy, Marina and Sergiy Djachenko “Pentakle”, 2005).

Extra- + cook- + -ing = pref. extra-, cook, end. -ing.

This word is at the border of two notions: semantic nonce word and colloquial word.

Thus, the creation of the dictionary of the nonce words, which would not only cover the style of single author, but scaled time- and style- segments, is very difficult and controversial, but important problem. To our mind, lexicographic interpretation of occasional formation, especially by foreign author, has to be complex and include not only semantic, associative, grammatical and word-building aspects, but also pay attention to the translation of the author’s words. Besides, every dictionary entry has to contain illustration, which helps with the interpretation of a nonce word. The author of this dictionary has to give a definition of a word and, if it is necessary, insert some additional extralinguistic cultural information, different commentaries, which will help in the perception of artistic work by the reader.

The perspective of the further research in this area can be the interpretation and lexicographing of occasional words in other genres of literature and the studying of the problems, connected with the translation of the nonce words into Ukrainian and Russian.

 

References. 

References

Бабенко 1997: Бабенко, Н.Г. Окказиональное в художественном тексте. Структурно-семантический анализ [Текст] / Н. Г. Бабенко– Калининград : КГУ, 1997. – 84 с.

Брагина 1974: Брагина, А.А. Рецензия на книгу : Лопатин В.В. Рождение слова : Неологизмы и окказиональные образования [Текст] / А. А. Брагина // Русский язык в школе.  1974.  № 3.  С. 111-114.

Вокальчук 2011: Вокальчук, Г.М. Здобутки і перспективи української індивідуально-авторської неографії [Текст] / Г. М. Вокальчук // Незгасимий СЛОВОСВІТ : збірник наукових праць на пошану професора В. С. Калашника / Уклад. М. Філон, Т. Ларіна. – Х. : ХНУ імені В. Н. Каразіна, 2011. – С. 208-217.

Дубичинский 2008: Дубичинский, В.В. Лексикография русского языка [Текст] : учебное пособие / В. В. Дубичинский.  М. : Наука : Флинта, 2008.  432 с.

Емец 2002: Емец, Д.А. Таня Гроттер и магический контрабас [Текст] / Д. А. Емец.  М. : Эксмо, 2002.  416 с.

Колоїз 2012: Колоїз, Ж.В. Оказіоналізми в лексикографії [Текст] / Ж. В. Колоїз // Філологічні студії. Структура і семантика мовних одиниць, 2012.  Вип. 8.  С. 97-114.

Лопатин 1973: Лопатин, В.В. Рождение слова : Неологизмы и окказиональные образования [Текст] / В. В. Лопатин.  М. : Наука, 1973. – 151 с.

Лыков 1976: Лыков, А.Г. Современная русская лексикология (русское окказиональное слово) [Текст] / А. Г. Лыков.  М. : Наука, 1976.  119 с.

Олді, Дяченко, Дяченко 2005: Олді, Г.Л., Дяченко, М., Дяченко, С. Пентакль [Текст] / Г. Л. Олді, М. Дяченко, С. Дяченко.  К., 2005.  230 с.

Попова 2005: Попова, Т.В. Русская неология и неография [Текст] / Т. В. Попова. – Екатеринбург : ГОУ ВПО УГТУ-УПИ, 2005. – 96 с.

Сологуб 1999: Сологуб, Н.М. Словотворення Яра Славутича [Текст] / Н. М. Сологуб // Мовний портрет Яра Славутича. – К. : Дніпро, Вінніпег : Українська вільна Академія наук, 1999. – С. 45-111.

Щерба 1974: Щерба, Л.В. Опыт общей теории лексикографии [Текст] / Л. В. Щерба // Языковая система и речевая деятельность. – М. : Наука, 1974.  С. 265-304.

Ende 1998: Ende, M. Die Unendliche Geschichte [Text] / M. Ende.  Stuttgart : Thienemanns Verlag, 1998.  428 ss.

Rowling 2000: Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone [Text] / J. K. Rowling.  London : Bloomsbury Publishing PLC, 2000.  336 pp.

 

Стаття присвячена неографії як науці, історії її становлення, походження та основним аспектам дослідження. Однією з основних проблем, що знаходяться в межах неографічної науки, є питання про лексикографування нових мовленнєвих одиниць, а саме оказіоналізмів. Крім того, у статті запропоновано нові принципи лексикографічної інтерпретації оказіональної лексики, що функціонує у жанрі фентезі.

Ключові слова: неологія, неографія, лексикографія, оказіоналізм, фентезі, словникова стаття.

Available 27 September 2013.