Facing the Prepositions (Prepositional Units in The Russian, Bulgarian and Ukrainian Languages)

 © The Editorial Team of Linguistic Studies

Linguistic Studies
Volume 29, 2014, pp. 100-108

Facing the Prepositions (Prepositional Units in The Russian, Bulgarian and Ukrainian Languages)

Ekaterina Vinogradova, Hannа Sytar, Valeria Chekalina

Article first published online: October 10, 2014 


Additional information

 Author Information: 

Ekaterina N. Vinogradova, Candidate of Philology, Associate Professor at Department of Russian as a Foreign Language for Humanities in Lomonosov Moscow State University. Correspondence: katinko2007@yandex.ru

Hanna V. Sytar, Candidate of Philology, Associate Professor working for a doctoral degree at at Department of Ukrainian Language and Applied Linguistics in Donetsk National University. Correspondence: mova@interdon.net

Valeria L. Chekalina, Candidate of Philology, Seniour Lecturer at Department of Russian as a Foreign Language for Humanities in Lomonosov Moscow State University. Correspondence: chekalina.valeria@gmail.com

Citation: 
Vinogradova, E., Sytar, H., Chekalina, V. Facing the Prepositions (Prepositional Units in The Russian, Bulgarian and Ukrainian Languages) [Text] / 
E. Vinogradova, H. Sytar, V. Chekalina  // Linguistic Studies collection of scientific papers / Donetsk National University Ed. by A. P. Zahnitko. – Donetsk : DonNU, 2014. – Vol. 29. – Pp. 100-108. – ISBN 966-7277-88-7

Publication History:
Volume first published online: October 10, 2014

Article received: 29 September 2013, accepted: February 20, 2014 and first published online: October 10, 2014

Annotation.

The article presents comparative analysis of Russian prepositional units with the noun "лицо" and their functional equivalents in Bulgarian and Ukrainian languages. The present study identifies, distinguishes and describes the three types of correspondences between these units in the languages: (1) the prepositional units are the same in two or in all the three languages; (2) the prepositional units correspond with different prepositional units but with the same meaning; (3) the prepositional units correspond with non-prepositional units bearing the same meaning. These units are distinguished according to the stage of their grammatization . The forms in the late stage of grammatization are recommended to be included in the dictionaries as independent dictionary entries and be presented in class by language teachers as prepositions.

Keywords: Bulgarian language, comparative analyses, grammatization, preposition, prepositional unit, elementary syntax component (syntaxeme),  preposition analogues, Russian language, somatism, Ukrainian language.



Abstract.

FACING THE PREPOSITIONS (PREPOSITIONAL UNITS IN THE RUSSIAN, BULGARIAN AND UKRAINIAN LANGUAGES)

Ekaterina Vinogradova

Department of Russian as a Foreign Language for Humanities, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Moscow region, Russia,

Hanna Sytar

Department of Ukrainian Language and Applied Linguistics, Donetsk National University, Donetsk, Donetsk region, Ukraine,

Valeria Chekalina

Department of Russian as a Foreign Language for Humanities, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Moscow region, Russia

 

Available 29 September 2013.

 

Abstract

Relevance

The comparative analysis of Slavic prepositional units is an actual and up-to-date problem. The research identifies and explores the most relevant issues of correspondences between the languages through in-depth examination of the Slavic prepositional units.

Purpose

The purpose of the research is to present comparative analysis of Russian prepositional units with the noun "лицо" and their functional equivalents in Bulgarian and Ukrainian languages.

Tasks

In particular, our objectives in the present article are (1) to identify Russian prepositional units with the noun "лицо", (2) to find their equivalents in the Ukrainian and Bulgarian languages, (3) to find out correlations between them, (4) to determine the stages of their grammatization.

Novelty

The present study of Slavic prepositions is done as a part of an international linguistic project "Slavic Prepositions: Synchronic and Diachronic Analysis of Morphology and Syntax" that reveals new approaches in studying prepositional units.

Theoretical value

The results of the present research will contribute to the formation and development of an objective grammar of Slavic languages.

Practical value

The results of the comparative analysis of the prepositional units will allow to specify and to update the database of dictionaries, will help to make the translations from one language to another more accurate.

Conclusion

1. The prepositional units that have equivalents with the noun "лицо" in all the three compared languages are the following: в лицо1,2 кого-чего/кому-чему, в лице кого-чего, лицом1,2 к кому-чему, перед лицом1,2 кого-чего. The prepositional units that have equivalents with the noun "лицо" only in Russian and Ukrainian are перед лицо кого-чего, с каким лицом – с лицом кого-чего, с лицом кого-чегос лицами кого-чего. Different prepositional units that function as the equivalents are found for the unit от лица кого. There are no Bulgarian and Ukrainian equivalents for the Russian prepositional unit (не) к лицу1,2 кому что (делать).

2. The most grammatized are the prepositional units that form free elementary syntactic components (syntaxemes). Thus, we have identified the following prepositional units as free syntaxemes: в лице кого-чего, от лица кого-чего, перед лицом1 кого-чего (‘in the presence of’), перед лицом2 кого-чего (‘in conditions’), лицом1 к кому-чему (location). The determined syntaxemes also have a rather advanced stage of grammatization: (не) к лицу1 кому что (‘become, suit’); (не) к лицу2 кому что (делать) (‘befit’). Due to the high degree of metaphorization the prepositional unit лицом2 к кому-чему is also grammatized to a great extent. Consequently, all these units can be recommended to inclusion to the dictionaries as independent dictionary entries.

3. In the Russian language the noun "лицо" is polysemic. The most prepositional units with this noun are derived from the one with the meaning "the front part of the head". The prepositional units в лице кого and от лица кого are derived from the one with the meaning "an individual", "a person".

4. In the Ukrainian language prepositional units with the noun "лицо" include three lexical items:

(а) обличчя (the front part of the head): в лицов обличчя, перед лицом1,2перед обличчям, перед лицо перед обличчя, лицом кобличчям до (also registered лицем до), с каким лицом з яким обличчям, с лицом когоз обличчям кого;

(b) особа (a person, an individual), от лица, в лице в особі (also registered в образі);

(c) лице (a borrowing from Russian = norm обличчя): (не) к лицу – (не) до лиця, лицом к – обличчям до (and лицем до). In fact, the borrowing from Russian is mostly used in loan translations and idioms.

5. Russian prepositions в лице кого and от лица кого are converse terms. In Ukrainian and Bulgarian there is the only unit represented: в особi кого (Ukrainian), в лицето на кого (Bulgarian). As a converse term a prepositional unit with another lexical item functions: від, від імені кого (Ukrainian), от името на кого (Bulgarian).

6. Russian prepositions перед лицом1 кого-чего (‘in the presence of’), перед лицом2 кого-чего (‘in conditions’) have literal equivalents in Ukrainian (перед обличчям кого / чого) and in Bulgarian (пред лицето на кого). However, in Russian and in the Ukrainian languages these prepositional units vary in their inner structure: it is possible to eliminate the noun "лицо" in the prepositional unit перед лицом1 кого-чего (‘in the presence of’) without sacrificing grammatical and semantic integrity. For instance, перед лицом свидетелейперед свидетелями. But such elimination is impossible for the unit перед лицом2 кого-чего (‘in conditions’). For example, перед лицом угрозы войны à *перед уг­ро­зой войны (Russian), перед обличчям небуття à *перед небуттям (Ukrainian). The possibility to eliminate the noun proves its subordinate function. Accordingly, we can assume that this prepositional unit has a very high degree of grammatization.

7. Prepositional units лицом1 к кому-чему (location) and лицом2 к кому-чему (direction) have the equivalents in Ukrainian (обличчям / лицем до кого-чого) and Bulgarian (с лице към) languages. In contrast to Russian and Ukrainian in the Bulgarian language there is a position for an optional quantitative specifier. For example, Парцел земеделска земя с площ от 13 100 кв м, с лице 90 м към магистрала Ямбол-Елхово. A Ukrainian borrowing from Russian лицем до кого-чого is used mostly in the idiomatic expressions: лицем до села, лицем до виробництва.

8. Russian prepositional units с каким лицом and с лицом кого have the equivalents only in the Ukrainian language: з яким обличчям and з обличчям кого.

9. It appeared that prepositional units that form determined syntaxemes ((не) к лицу1 кому что (‘becomes, suits’), (не) к лицу2 кому что (делать) (‘befits’)) do not have prepositional equivalents in the Ukrainian and Bulgarian languages. Instead, in order to express the same meaning verbal structures are used: пасувати що кому, личити що кому (Ukrainian), това ви отива; това не ви отива, не ви прилича (Bulgarian). Compare with the Russian кому идет, подходит, пристало что. However, we have registered a Ukrainian prepositional unit до лиця (with a borrowing from Russian (лице) instead of Ukrainian обличчя or особа).

10. Prepositional units that form bound syntaxemes (в лицо1 кому-чему (говорить), в лицо2 чему (смотреть)) are registered in all the three languages (bulg. в лицето на някого (казвам, говоря, изсмивам се), в лицето на кого (гледам), ukr. в обличчя кому, в обличчя чому-чого (говорити, дивитися).

Perspective

The results of the study provide us with an extensive database that is to be used for further comparative analysis of Slavic prepositional units.

 

Research highlights

 The article presents comparative analysis of Russian prepositional units with the noun "лицо" and their functional equivalents in Bulgarian and Ukrainian languages. ► The present study identifies, distinguishes and describes the three types of correspondences between these units in the languages: (1) the prepositional units are the same in two or in all the three languages, (2) the prepositional units correspond with different prepositional units but with the same meaning, and (3) the prepositional units correspond with non-prepositional units bearing the same meaning. ► These units are distinguished according to the stage of their grammatization. ► The forms in the late stage of grammatization are recommended to be included in the dictionaries as independent dictionary entries and be presented in class by language teachers as prepositions.

Keywords: Bulgarian language, comparative analyses, grammatization, preposition, prepositional unit, elementary syntax component (syntaxeme), preposition analogues, Russian language, somatism, Ukrainian language.

 

References

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Vsevolodova, M. V. (2011). K voprosu ob operacional'nyh metodah kategorizacii predlozhnyh edinic. Vestnik Moskovskogo un-ta, serija 9. Filologija, # 3, 103-135.

Vsevolodova, M. V. (2013). Russkie predlogi i sredstva predlozhnogo tipa. Materialy k funkcional'no-grammaticheskomu opisaniju real'nogo upotreblenija: Vvedenie v ob"ektivnuju grammatiku i leksikografiju russkih predlozhnyh edinic. M.: URSS.

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Kanyushkevich, M. I. (2008-2010). BjelaruskiJa prynazowniki i ih analagi. Gramatyka real"naga wzhyvannJa. Materyjaly da slownika. Hrodna: HrDU.

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Lapushinskaja, N. O. (2007). Funkcionirovanie leksemy "lico" vo frazeologizmah russkogo, belorusskogo i zapadnogermanskih jazykov. Lichnost' – slovo – socium: v 3 ch., 2, 136-141. Minsk: Parkus pljus.

Peshkovskij, A. M. (2010). Ob"ektivnaja i normativnaja tochka zrenija na jazyk. M.: Knizhnyj dom "Librokom".

Slavjanskite, (2007). Slavjanskite predlozi. Veliko T"rnovo: Izd. IVIS.

FSUM, (1999). Frazeolohichnyy slovnyk ukrayins'koyi movy: V 2-kh kn. K.: Naukova dumka.

Chukalov, S. K. (1981). Russko-bolgarskij slovar'. M.: Rus.jaz.

Bybee, J. (1994). The Evolution of Gramma: Tense, Aspect, and Modality in the Languages of the world. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Nevzorova, O. (2000). Context-Dependent Mechanisms for Recognition of Semantic Role of a Word in the Sentence MexicoE-portal: http://www.cicling.org/2000/book/Nevzorova.pdf.

 

Correspondence: katinko2007@yandex.ru, mova@interdon.netchekalina.valeria@gmail.com

Vitae

Ekaterina N. Vinogradova, Candidate of Philology, Associate Professor at Department of Russian as a Foreign Language for Humanities in Lomonosov Moscow State University. Her areas of research interests include Russian functional grammar: syntax, morphology, prepositional system and distance learning of Russian as a foreign language;

Hanna V. Sytar, Candidate of Philology, Associate Professor working for a doctoral degree at at Department of Ukrainian Language and Applied Linguistics in Donetsk National University. Her areas of research interests include functional linguistics, syntax, morphology, comparative linguistics and applied linguistics;

Valeria L. Chekalina, Candidate of Philology, Seniour Lecturer at Department of Russian as a Foreign Language for Humanities in Lomonosov Moscow State University. Her areas of research interests include Russian functional grammar: syntax, morphology, prepositional system and distance learning of Russian as a foreign language.


Article.

Ekaterina Vinogradova, Hannа Sytar, Valeria Chekalina

УДК 81'367.633                                    

FACING THE PREPOSITIONS

(PREPOSITIONAL UNITS IN THE RUSSIAN, BULGARIAN

 AND UKRAINIAN LANGUAGES)

 

The article presents comparative analysis of Russian prepositional units with the noun "лицо" and their functional equivalents in Bulgarian and Ukrainian languages. The present study identifies, distinguishes and describes the three types of correspondences between these units in the languages: (1) the prepositional units are the same in two or in all the three languages; (2) the prepositional units correspond with different prepositional units but with the same meaning; (3) the prepositional units correspond with non-prepositional units bearing the same meaning. These units are distinguished according to the stage of their grammatization[1]. The forms in the late stage of grammatization are recommended to be included in the dictionaries as independent dictionary entries and be presented in class by language teachers as prepositions.

Keywords: Bulgarian language, comparative analyses, grammatization, preposition, prepositional unit, elementary syntax component (syntaxeme),[2] preposition analogues, Russian language, somatism, Ukrainian language.

 

It is widely known that the lexical items that denote parts of the body (somatisms) are used in many languages as a part of a wide range of idioms and phraseological units [Гудков, Ковшова 2007; ФСУМ 1999; Кошелев 2008]. For instance, Russian noun "лицо" is regularly used in the following idioms: лицом к лицу, краска бросилась в лицо, ли­ца нет на ком-либо, на одно лицо, с лица некрасив, не с лица воду пить, лицом в грязь не уда­рить, рассказывать в лицах, стереть с лица зем­ли, в поте лица, спасть с лица, невзирая на лица, товар лицом по­ка­зать etc. Bulgarian noun "лице" is also found in a range of different phraseological units: казвам / говоря в лицето, изтривам от лицето на земята, лице в лице, изсмивам се в лицето на някого, обръщам се с лице към, гледам в лице, etc. The noun "лицо" is polysemantic in Russian and in Bulgarian. However, in the Ukrainian language more than three lexical units can function as the equivalents to this noun:

(1)                   обличчя (meaning "the front part of the head");

(2)                   особа ("an individual", "a person");

(3)                   лице (the same as обличчя, a borrowing from Russian).

Compare: говорити в обличчя (to say to someone's face), мінитися на обличчі (to change countenance), не ударити лицем / обличчям у грязь / у болото (not to disgrace oneself); на одне лице (as like as two peas), лицем у / в лице / до лиця (face to face), etc.

Such polysemy is typical not only for Slavic languages [Лапушинская 2007]. The phenomenon can be explained by the egocentric nature of any verbal and cogitative activity of the language speakers that proves the anthropocentrism of any language.

The usage and the meaning of the noun "лицо" are not identical even in the closest languages. Consequently, that makes this research relevant and up to date. The present study of Slavic prepositions is done as a part of an international linguistic project "Slavic Prepositions: Synchronic and Diachronic Analysis of Morphology and Syntax" (about the project [Всеволодовa 2003], current results [Всеволодова 2013; Загнiтко 2007; Канюшкевiч 2008-2010; Славянските 2007]).

We focus here on the issue of comparative analysis of Russian, Ukrainian and Bulgarian prepositional units that include the noun "лицо". In particular, our tasks in the present article are (1) to identify Russian prepositional units with the noun "лицо", (2) to find their equivalents in the Ukrainian and Bulgarian languages, (3) to find out correlations between them, (4) to determine the stages of their grammatization. This will contribute to the formation and development of an objective grammar [Пешковский 2010] of Slavic languages, will allow to specify and to update the database of dictionaries, will help to make the translations from one language to another more accurate.

We have registered three types of prepositional units with the noun "лицо" in the Russian language:

(1)                   the prepositional units that function as free elementary syntactic components (free syntaxemes): в лице кого-чего, от лица кого-чего, перед (пред) лицом1 кого-чего, перед (пред) лицом2 кого-чего, лицом к1 кому-чему, с каким лицом, с лицом кого;

(2)                   the prepositional units that function as determined syntactic components (determined syntaxemes): (не) к лицу1 кому что, (не) к лицу2 кому что (делать);

(3)                   the prepositional units that function as bound syntactic components (bound syntaxemes): лицом к2 кому-чему, в лицо1 кому-чему (говорить), в лицо2 чему (смотреть), на лице чего на лицо чегоот лица чегос лица чего.

Due to the comparative analysis we have identified the three types of correspondences between the units in the languages: (1) the prepositional units are the same in two or in all the three languages, (2) the prepositional units correspond with different prepositional units but with the same meaning, and (3) the prepositional units correspond with non-prepositional units bearing the same meaning.

(1)     The prepositional units are the same in two or in all the three languages:

Type A. The prepositional units are the same in all the three compared languages


In contrast to Russian and Ukrainian languages there is a position for an optional quantitative specifier in Bulgarian. For example, Парцел земеделска земя с площ от 13 100 кв м, с лице 90 м към магистрала Ямбол-Елхово


Note that the Ukrainian structures similar to перед лицом опасности have a primary preposition as its equivalent: у небезпеці, при небезпеці [Вирган, Пилинська 2000: 446].

Type B. There are equivalent prepositional units only in Russian and Ukrainian languages.


(2)  The prepositional units correspond with different prepositional units but with the same meaning.



(3) The prepositional units correspond with non-prepositional units bearing the same meaning.


The second step of the present analysis is aimed at distinguishing the stage of prepositional unit grammatization. Grammatization is the process when a unit with a full lexical meaning is gradually becoming an auxiliary grammatical unit. We focus on the grammatization of the certain forms of the noun (in this particular article of the noun "лицо") that gradually turn into prepositions. In other words, the phrase with a somatic noun loses part of its substantive meaning in the process of grammatization and starts functioning as an auxiliary unit.

We assume that the prepositional units with the most advanced stage of grammatization (that have literally become prepositions) are the prepositional units that function as free elementary syntactic components (free syntaxemes). For instance, Russian в лице кого-чего, от лица кого-чего, перед (пред) лицом1 кого-чего, перед (пред) лицом2 кого-чего, лицом к1 кому-чему, с каким лицом, с лицом кого. In order to identify the stage of grammatization we use some operational tools suggested by M.V. Vsevolodova in [Всеволодова 2011] that most notably include the grade of metaphorization and the existence of the morphosyntactic paradigm.

We will demonstrate the procedure of such analysis using two prepositional units в лице кого and от лица кого as the examples

В ЛИЦЕ КОГО-ЧЕГО

We assume that the Russian prepositional unit в лице кого has already become a genuine preposition with a descriptive meaning: на выборах 1999― 2000 годов победила правая идеология (в лице "Единства", СПС и самого Путина)… (www.ruscorpora.ru). The reasons for such an assumption are (1) a high degree of metaphorization: в лице упол­номоченных органов à impossible *лицо уполномоченных органов; (2) an existence of a morphosyntactic paradigm: в лице когов лицах кого. In addition, Russian prepositional unit в лице кого has a converse term: цирк в лице ди­рек­то­ра ó директор от лица цирка.

Bulgarian prepositional unit в лицето на кого has also reached a rather advanced stage of grammatization. It introduces not only animate actants (В лицето на Беки Шарп, Текъри е създал една архетипна героиня (http://kino.dir.bg/material.php?id=3605) but also inanimate ones (Имате приятел в лицето на гъбите (http://www.lechitel.bg/newspaper.php?s=5&b=380).

The Ukrainian equivalent is в особі кого: Зрадів безмірно, отримавши собі помічника, прибічника, слугу й повірника в особі Мехмеда Соколлу (Павло Загребельний. Роксолана); У разі, якщо одним із засновників (учасників) господарського товариства є держава в особі уповноважених нею органів, розмір вкладів учасників (засновників), що здійснюються у вигляді майна, до статутного фонду такого господарського товариства визначається на підставі висновку оцінювача про вартість такого майна (Про оцінку майна, майнових прав та професійну оціночну діяльність в Україні. Закон України). There are also two converse terms. The first one is with the noun імʼя: директор від імені колективу, impossible *директор від особи колективу. The second one is the preposition від кого. Compare data from the idiomatic dictionary: "От лица кого. Від кого; від імені (від імення) чийого, кого" [Вирган, Пилинська 2000: 446].

ОТ ЛИЦА КОГО-ЧЕГО


Russian prepositional unit от лица кого (the same as its converse term в лице кого) is a genuine preposition with a descriptive meaning: Затем отряд «революционных клоунов» начал субверсивное представление с лозунгами "наизнанку", но на этот раз не от лица "преданных граждан", а от лица власть имущих (www.ruscorpora.ru). Firstly, it has a high degree of metaphorization: Если вы очень устали от тролля на вашей странице, можете отреагировать на него иронично от лица технического аккаунта (www.ruscorpora.ru) à impossible *лицо тех­ни­ческого аккаунта. Secondly, it forms a morphosyntactic paradigm: от лица ко­гоот лиц когo. The prepositional unit has a synonym от имени кого: Старейшины от лица на­ро­да поднесли адмиралу благодарственный лист… (www.ruscorpora.ru); =…выражаю от име­ни всего российского народа огромную, искреннюю бла­го­дар­ность за ваш исторический подвиг (www.ruscorpora.ru).

However, there are no such prepositional units in the Bulgarian and Ukrainian languages. Instead the equivalents with the noun "имя" are used. Bulgarian от името на кого: Прочетете текста и го преразкажете от името на един от героите в него – Влади (http://www.minedu.government.bg /opencms/export/sites/mon /top_menu/general/7klas/tests/ test_bel_prerazkaz.pdf). Ukrainian від імені кого: "Заявник" означає особу, від імені якої подана міжнародна заявка (Женевський акт Гаазької угоди про міжнародну реєстрацію промислових зразків).

In sum, we have analyzed 17 Russian prepositional units with the noun "лицо" and its Bulgarian and Ukrainian equivalents. The results of the research are summarized in table 1.


Summary.

1.    The prepositional units that have equivalents with the noun "лицо" in all the three compared languages are the following: в лицо1,2 кого-чего/кому-чему, в лице кого-чего, лицом1,2 к кому-чему, перед лицом1,2 кого-чего. The prepositional units that have equivalents with the noun "лицо" only in Russian and Ukrainian are перед лицо кого-чего, с каким лицом – с лицом кого-чего, с лицом кого-чегос лицами кого-чего. Different prepositional units that function as the equivalents are found for the unit от лица кого. There are no Bulgarian and Ukrainian equivalents for the Russian prepositional unit (не) к лицу1,2 кому что (делать).

2.        The most grammatized are the prepositional units that form free elementary syntactic components (syntaxemes). Thus, we have identified the following prepositional units as free syntaxemes: в лице кого-чего, от лица кого-чего, перед лицом1 кого-чего (‘in the presence of’), перед лицом2 кого-чего (‘in conditions’), лицом1 к кому-чему (location). The determined syntaxemes also have a rather advanced stage of grammatization: (не) к лицу1 кому что (‘become, suit’); (не) к лицу2 кому что (делать) (‘befit’). Due to the high degree of metaphorization the prepositional unit лицом2 к кому-чему is also grammatized to a great extent. Consequently, all these units can be recommended to inclusion to the dictionaries as independent dictionary entries.

3. In the Russian language the noun "лицо" is polysemic. The most prepositional units with this noun are derived from the one with the meaning "the front part of the head". The prepositional units в лице кого and от лица кого are derived from the one with the meaning "an individual", "a person".

4. In the Ukrainian language prepositional units with the noun "лицо" include three lexical items:

 (а) обличчя (the front part of the head): в лицов обличчя, перед лицом1,2перед обличчям, перед лицо перед обличчя, лицом кобличчям до (also registered лицем до), с каким лицом з яким обличчям, с лицом когоз обличчям кого;

(b) особа (a person, an individual), от лица, в лице в особі (also registered в образі);

(c) лице (a borrowing from Russian = norm обличчя): (не) к лицу – (не) до лиця, лицом к – обличчям до (and лицем до). In fact, the borrowing from Russian is mostly used in loan translations and idioms.

5. Russian prepositions в лице кого and от лица кого are converse terms. In Ukrainian and Bulgarian there is the only unit represented: в особi кого (Ukrainian), в лицето на кого (Bulgarian). As a converse term a prepositional unit with another lexical item functions: від, від імені кого (Ukrainian), от името на кого (Bulgarian).

6. Russian prepositions перед лицом1 кого-чего (‘in the presence of’), перед лицом2 кого-чего (‘in conditions’) have literal equivalents in Ukrainian (перед обличчям кого / чого) and in Bulgarian (пред лицето на кого). However, in Russian and in the Ukrainian languages these prepositional units vary in their inner structure: it is possible to eliminate the noun "лицо" in the prepositional unit перед лицом1 кого-чего (‘in the presence of’) without sacrificing grammatical and semantic integrity. For instance, перед лицом свидетелейперед свидетелями. But such elimination is impossible for the unit перед лицом2 кого-чего (‘in conditions’). For example, перед лицом угрозы войны à *перед уг­ро­зой войны (Russian), перед обличчям небуття à *перед небуттям (Ukrainian). The possibility to eliminate the noun proves its subordinate function. Accordingly, we can assume that this prepositional unit has a very high degree of grammatization.

7. Prepositional units лицом1 к кому-чему (location) and лицом2 к кому-чему (direction) have the equivalents in Ukrainian (обличчям / лицем до кого-чого) and Bulgarian (с лице към) languages. In contrast to Russian and Ukrainian in the Bulgarian language there is a position for an optional quantitative specifier. For example, Парцел земеделска земя с площ от 13 100 кв м, с лице 90 м към магистрала Ямбол-Елхово. A Ukrainian borrowing from Russian лицем до кого-чого is used mostly in the idiomatic expressions: лицем до села, лицем до виробництва.

8. Russian prepositional units с каким лицом and с лицом кого have the equivalents only in the Ukrainian language: з яким обличчям and з обличчям кого.

9. It appeared that prepositional units that form determined syntaxemes ((не) к лицу1 кому что (‘becomes, suits’), (не) к лицу2 кому что (делать) (‘befits’)) do not have prepositional equivalents in the Ukrainian and Bulgarian languages. Instead, in order to express the same meaning verbal structures are used: пасувати що кому, личити що кому (Ukrainian), това ви отива; това не ви отива, не ви прилича (Bulgarian). Compare with the Russian кому идет, подходит, пристало что. However, we have registered a Ukrainian prepositional unit до лиця (with a borrowing from Russian (лице) instead of Ukrainian обличчя or особа).

10. Prepositional units that form bound syntaxemes (в лицо1 кому-чему (говорить), в лицо2 чему (смотреть)) are registered in all the three languages (bulg. в лицето на някого (казвам, говоря, изсмивам се), в лицето на кого (гледам), ukr. в обличчя кому, в обличчя чому-чого (говорити, дивитися).

The results of our study provide us with an extensive database that is to be used for further comparative analysis of Slavic prepositional units.



[1] Reduced to its essentials, grammatization theory begins with the observation that grammatical morphemes develop gradually out of lexical morphemes or combinations of lexical morphemes with lexical or grammatical morphemes [Bybee 1994].

[2] Syntaxeme is simple and indivisible semantic-syntactical unit of Russian language serving as well as the elementary meaning carrier and as the constructive component of more complicated syntactical units, which are characterized by definite set of syntactic functions [Nevzorova 2000].

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References. 

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У статті запропоновано зіставний аналіз російських прийменникових одиниць, що містять лексему "лицо", та їхніх еквівалентів у болгарській та українській мовах. Виділено три типи російсько-болгарсько-українських відповідностей: (1) прийменникові одиниці, що у всіх мовах містять відповідну іменникову лексему; (2) прийменникові одиниці, що мають як еквівалент інші прийменникові одиниці; (3) прийменникові одиниці з відповідниками- неприйменниковими одиницями. Аналізовані одиниці диференційовано за ступенем оприйменникування. Визначено найбільш граматикалізовані прийменникові одиниці, які можуть бути рекомендовані до включення в лексикографічну і викладацьку практику як прийменники.

Ключові слова: аналог прийменника, болгарська мова, граматикалізація, зіставний аналіз, прийменник, прийменникова одиниця, російська мова, синтаксема, соматизм, українська мова.

Available 29 September 2013.