Cursings as Behaviour Speech Formulas that Vebalize Negative Emotions and States

 © The Editorial Team of Linguistic Studies

Linguistic Studies
Volume 29, 2014, pp. 196-200

Cursings as Behaviour Speech Formulas that Vebalize  Negative Emotions and States

Vira Slipetska

Article first published online: October 10, 2014 


Additional information

 Author Information: 

Vira D. Slipetska, Candidate of Philology, Associate Professor at Department of Germanic Languages and Translation Studies in Drohobych Ivan Franko State Pedagogical University, the Deputy Dean (Drohobych, L’viv Region, Ukraine). Correspondence: vslipetska@ukr.net

Citation: 
Slipetska, V. Cursings as Behaviour Speech Formulas that Vebalize  Negative Emotions and States [Text] / V. 
Slipetska // Linguistic Studies collection of scientific papers / Donetsk National University Ed. by A. P. Zahnitko. – Donetsk : DonNU, 2014. – Vol. 29. – Pp. 196-200. – ISBN 966-7277-88-7

Publication History:
Volume first published online: October 10, 2014

Article received: 10 September 2013, accepted: February 20, 2014 and first published online: October 10, 2014

Annotation.

The scientific research is focused on the analysis of the communicative laws represented by means of cursings in which the speech formulas and models of communicative tactics have been fixed and realized by the representatives of a certain linguistic culture in the aspect of actualization of negative emotions, states, feelings to verbalize threats, quarrels taking into account a national character of a certain linguistic culture.

Keywords: linguistic culture, communicative space, speech formula, cursing, threats, quarrels, negative estimation, national character.



Abstract.

CURSINGS AS BEHAVIOUR SPEECH FORMULAS THAT VERBALIZE NEGATIVE EMOTIONS AND STATES

Vira Slipetska

Department of Germanic Languages and Translation Studies, Institute of Foreign Languages, Drohobych Ivan Franko State Pedagogical University, Drohobych, L’viv Region, Ukraine

 

Available 10 September 2013.


Abstract

Relevance          

The research of speech formulas that verbalize the negative emotions is relevant in linguistics of emotions, pragmalinguistics because the speech formulas help neutralize some negativnesss in a certain linguistic culture. There are different speech formulas that help neutralize some negativeness in different linguistic cultures.

Purpose

The purpose of the research is to describe speech formulas of verbalization of the negative emotions, feelings and states, directed to neutralization of the negative influence in a communicative space of the Ukrainian linguistic culture, taking into account a speech expression of the Ukrainian consciousness, the expression of the Ukrainian national character.

Tasks

The purpose raises the following tasks: 1) to compile the sample of cursings; 2) to single out the speech formulas that verbalized the negative emotions; 3) to determine the following speech genres: cursing, paroemia; 4) to analyze the speech formulas that are used during quarrels, fights, threats.

Novelty

The novelty of the research is determinated by the analysis of speech formulas that verbalize the negative emotions in Ukrainian linguistic culture. The novelty is also defined with the analysis of a speech genre cursing.

Theoretical value

The theoretical value of the study is reasoned with the disclosure of speech formulas that verbalize the negative emotions and states.

Practical value

The theoretical results give reasons for practical importance, which may be used in linguistics of emotions, psycholinguistics as well as in pragmalinguistics.

Conclusion

Each linguistic culture and language consciousness create the code of speech behavior that represents people’s inclination to express negative emotions (dissatisfaction, irritation, anger, hatred, fear) affectation states or a negative mood. The above mentioned state is verbalized with speech formulas of a quarrel, cursing or threats. In paroemia fund of the Ukrainians there are many units are aimed at criticizing negative activities, verbalization of some irony, indirect expression of admonition, warning, recommendations, emphasis on traditions, religious bans, and moral imperatives. The form of an indirect communication, euphemism-phrases is used as well as vulgarisms peculiar to modelling of a negative communication. As it can be seen people’s consciousness reflects the knowledge of psychology, laws and rules of a successful communication. All these aspects are described, formulated and characterized in the sphere of the modern humanities.

Perspective

The perspective is determined by the necessity to single out the peculiarities of modeling of paroemia formulas that concern the specificity of verbalization of the negative emotions and states in Ukrainian, Russian and English linguistic cultures.

 

Research highlights

► The scientific research is focused on the analysis of the communicative laws represented by means of cursings in which the speech formulas and models of communicative tactics have been fixed and realized by the representatives of a certain linguistic culture in the aspect of actualization of negative emotions, states, feelings to verbalize threats, quarrels taking into account a national character of a certain linguistic culture.

Keywords: linguistic culture, communicative space, speech formula, cursing, threats, quarrels, negative estimation, national character.

 

References

Kosmeda Т. А. (2010). Komunikatyvnyy kodeks ukrayintsiv u paremiyakh. Drohobych: Kolo.

Kosmeda, T. A. (2010). Komunikatyvna kompetentsiya Ivana Franka ta osoblyvosti yoho rytoryky. Ivan Franko: dukh, nauka, dumka, volya materialy Mizhnarodnoho naukovoho konhresu, prysvyachenoho 150-richchyu vid dnya narodzhennya Ivana Franka, 2, 73-85. L'viv: Vydavnychyy tsentr L'vivs'koho natsional'noho universytetu imeni Ivana Franka.

Slipets'ka, V. D. (2011). Proklyattya yak zasib reprezentatsiyi nehatyvnoyi komunikatsiyi. Zbirnyk naukovykh prats' Kharkivs'koho natsional'noho pedahohichnoho universytetu imeni H. S. Skovorody, 32, 236-241. Kharkiv.

Slipets'ka, V. D. (2013). Vyyav nehatyvnykh emotsiy v ukrayins'kiy, rosiys'kiy i anhliys'kiy linhvokul'turakh: movlennyevyy zhanr poklyattya. Studia Ukrainica Posnaniensia, 195-200. Poznan': Vydvnychyy tsentr Poznan's'koho universytetu imeni Adama Mitskevycha.

Shahovskij, V. I. (2008). Lingvisticheskaja teorija jemocij. M.: Gnozis.

Shahovskij, V. I. (2010). Jemocii: dolingvistika, lingvistika, lingvokul'turologija. M.: Knizhnyj dom LIBROKOM.

Shkіc'ka, І. Ju. (2012). Manіpuljativnі taktiki pozitivu: lіngvіstichnij aspekt. K.: Vidavnichij dіm Dmitra Burago.

 

Sources and Abbreviations

Halyts'ko-rus'ki narodni prypovidky, (2006). Halyts'ko-rus'ki narodni prypovidky: u 3 tt. L'viv: VTs LNU im. I. Franka.

 

Correspondence: vslipetska@ukr.net

Vitae

Vira D. Slipetska is Candidate of Philology, Associate Professor at Department of Germanic Languages and Translation Studies in Drohobych Ivan Franko State Pedagogical University, the Deputy Dean. Her research areas include pragmalinguistics, linguistics of emotions and linguoculturology.


Article.

Vira Slipetska

УДК 81’1+81’373

CURSINGS AS BEHAVIOUR SPEECH FORMULAS THAT VERBALIZE NEGATIVE EMOTIONS AND STATES

 

The scientific research is focused on the analysis of the communicative laws represented by means of cursings in which the speech formulas and models of communicative tactics have been fixed and realized by the representatives of a certain linguistic culture in the aspect of actualization of negative emotions, states, feelings to verbalize threats, quarrels taking into account a national character of a certain linguistic culture.

Keywords: linguistic culture, communicative space, speech formula, cursing, threats, quarrels, negative estimation, national character.

                                                                                                                                            

A modern interpretative prahmalinguistic paradigm of knowledge is focused on the analysis of the peculiarities of a communicative space modeling aimed at a successful communication. The experience of certain linguistic cultures must be investigated. This experience concerns the communicative tactics that verbalize different communicative situations illustrating negative emotions, feelings and states, quarrels, threats, etc. But in every linguistic culture there's the system, certain speech formulas, stereotype phrases that are used to neutralize or to explain in an ironic form the reasons for negativeness in communication, to foresee the possibility of appearing of such communicative situations, to focus on positiveness. Such a communicative code is reflected in cursings [Франко 2006]. The above mentioned investigative approach belongs to the topical directions of linguistics, such as: axiological pragmalinguistics, linguistics of emotions, communicative linguistics, psycholinguistics, paremiology.

The above mentioned phenomenon has been investigated by M. Alefirenko, Yu. Apresyan, N. Arutjunova, O. Volf, T. Kosmeda, V. Mokiyenko, T. Osipova, Yu. Pradid, O. Selivanova, J. Sternin. V. Teliya, V. Shahovskyi, I. Shkitska and others. In Ukrainian linguistic researches the manipulative tactics of positiveness, semantic and pragmatic peculiarities of complementary expressions have been investigated by I. Shkitska [Шкіцька 2012]. The relevance of research is determinated by the analysis of speech formulas that verbalize the negative emotions. Emotionality is a linguistic category that expresses certain emotional states of a person by means of the language units [Шаховский 2008, 2010].

The purpose of the research is to describe speech formulas of verbalization of the negative emotions, feelings and states, directed to neutralization of the negative influence in a communicative space of the Ukrainian linguistic culture, taking into account a speech expression of the Ukrainian consciousness, the expression of the Ukrainian national character. The purpose raises the following tasks: 1) to compile the sample of cursings; 2) to single out the speech formulas that verbalizes the negative emotions; 3) to determine the following speech genres: cursing, paroemia; 4) to analyze the speech formulas that are used during quarrels, fights, threats.

The novelty of the research is determined by the analysis of speech formulas that verbalize the negative emotions in Ukrainian linguistic culture. The novelty is also defined with the analysis of a speech genre cursing.  

The theoretical value of the study is reasoned with the disclosure of speech formulas that verbalize the negative emotions and states.

The theoretical results give reasons for practical importance, which may be used in linguistics of emotions, psycholinguistics as well as in pragmaliguistics.

Each language paroemia fund contains the information about the peculiarity of a communicative and emotional competence of this or that linguistic culture, its ability to model the speech behaviour formulas, to verbalize the behaviour tactics, in particular the reaction to express the negative emotions, feelings and states. Concerning the Ukrainian linguistic culture this information is distinctly traced in "Галицько-руські народні приповідки" ("Halytsko-Rus'kyh Narodnyh Prypovidkah"), compiled by I. Franko.

In the consciousness of the Ukrainians from Halychyna certain stereotypes have been worked out. These stereotypes illustrate a certain verbal reaction on a definite situation, its estimation, as well as the estimation of a person’s behaviour in this situation, approval and disapproval. These speech stereotypes are called “speech formulas” by I. Franko (see the works of T. Kosmeda [Космеда 2010]). These formulas verbalize mainly negative emotions, feelings of anger, fear, irritation, unsatisfaction, hatred and the others, that are represented in quarrels, threats, cursings and the others. These facts were partially mentioned in the works of the author of the article [Сліпецька 2011; Сліпецька 2013].

The cursings illustrate some emotionality of the Ukrainians. The emphasis is mainly laid on the emotions of a person, his or her sensual sphere, compare: до серця му помовив – the contrary by I. Franko: промовив this word addresses to feelings [Франко 2006: 115].

Ivan Franko fixed the examples of offensive addresses that were used by different social classes, for instance, "a stupid recruit" translated as "рекрутське вухо" [Франко 2006: 15]. The nation has certain formulas to answer different offences, rebukes, threats that concern a definite situation or an abstract one, compare: Не роби так, бо гріх. Е, гріх у міх, а спасеніє в торбу, а хто буде на перешкоді, того в морду – the commentary is made by I. Franko: it's a sin to do it [Франко 2006: 30], making fun of: Я ріс та все в ніс – the commentary is made by I. Franko: usually a man snaps back when he is made fun of because of his big nose [Франко 2006: 60]; не все сі то робить, що сі говорить – the commentary is made by I. Franko: a person answers when being threatened [Франко 2006: 30].

Sometimes this kind of answers have a joking character, compare: Пан Біг не дитина, би слухав дурного Клима – the commentary is made by I. Franko: answering cursing and threats [Франко 2006: 133].

Cursings may be of a soft character not evil and kind as well. The trait of a national Ukrainian character of being devout: the belief that only God has a right to judge: бодай ті Пан Біг, але я ти не зичу – the commentary is made by I. Franko, for instance: a joking cursing when a man curses being angry, "recollection that it is a sin to curse" [Франко 2006: 177]. The falk wisdom reflects the knowledge of Psychology, certain recommendations are given to prohibit "evil words", compare: Не рікши му ліпше – the commentary: "the word "рікши" is used when saying something evil about a person" [Франко 2006: 15].

The following euphemistic cursings have a joking character: Підеш до Пана Бога на скаргу – the commentary is made by I. Franko: when somebody seeks the reason for a quarrel and the other person says to step back otherwise he or she would be beaten and even the God will not help [Франко 2006: 34]; Бодай тобі горнець розстрілило! – the commentary: the cursing a joking character [Франко 2006: 52]. Evidently, the cursing is modelled by a female language personality because the image peculiar to a woman is represented in this cursing. Sometimes the cursing is projected to an unexpected effect, contrary to a negative one, compare: Піб'є тебе Пан Біг квасним молоком – the commentary is made by I. Franko: "a big disaster" [Франко 2006: 134], "disaster" sauer milk is meant, that was a favourite drink of peasants. So, a certain "conditional" cursing is meant, in fact – that is a wish to enjoy the meal / food.

But there are also euphemistic cursings that wish diseases and death, compare: А розперло би тобі бік! – the commentary: cursing [Франко 2006: 51]; А робив би грудьми! – the commentary: cursing: “to work hard” [Франко 2006: 28]. The cursings concern even children. That is may be caused by the situations of an upbringing process, when children are disobedient, are mischief makers. Adults get irritated and use cursings and the process of neutralization of the negative emotions takes place, for instance: Бодай єс не ріс більший! – the commentary: the cursing concerns a young boy [Франко 2006: 59].

Some cursings are based on the Slavic believes: Бодай єс руку з гробу виставив! – the commentary is made by I. Franko: the cursing, motivated by a falk belief that a criminal who is not punished shows his hand from the coffin/grave, asking for punishment [Франко 2006: 63], so the above mentioned cursing concerns the legal sphere: judgement and punishment are meant.

The expression of threat in the language consciousness of the Ukrainians is represented with certain language formulas. The most widely spread threats are the following: a physical punishment, killing, for example: Як ті пірву в свої руки, то з тебе гною нароблю! – the commentary: the rivals [Франко 2006: 71]; Не минеш ти моїх рук! – the commentary: the man’s threat addressed to another man [Франко 2006: 67]; Як ті вхоплю в руки, то з тебе кишки випущуthe commentary is made by I. Franko: the rival’s threat of a physical punishment [Франко 2006: 71]; Як ті пірву в свої руки, то з тебе гною нароблюthe commentary: the threat of a physical punishment [Франко 2006: 71]; Стережи сі моїх рук, бо не життя твоєthe commentary: the threat of killing [Франко 2006: 69].

The so called "soft" threats may be singled out. These threats concern children, for instance: Буде прут у роботіthe commentary: the threat of being physically punished (concerns children), compare: Сварине розуміє, бий нема що – the commentary: concerns an imbicile, disobedient child [Франко 2006: 80]; the threats-vulgarisms: Буде с-ка в роботі! – the commentary: the threat of being physically punished [Франко 2006: 38]; threats-euphemisms: Будеш у роботі! – the commentary: the threat concerns a physical punishment [Франко 2006: 38]; Не минеш ти моїх рук! – the commentary: the threat of being physically punished [Франко 2006: 67].

The speech genre "a quarrel" has a peculiar paroemiological verbalization. The quarrel is verbalized as reasonless, needless, in vain, a falk consciousness disapproves this action, calls for peace, compare: Посварилисмося та й сі перепросимо – the commentary of I. Franko: the quarrel caused with silly trifles that aren’t worth fighting [Франко 2006: 80]; Нема що робити, треба ся сварити – the commentary is made by I. Franko: the quarrel caused with silly trifles [Франко 2006: 80]; Сварімося, діду, за чужу біду – the commentary is made by I. Franko: said about the quarrel that has no reasonable grounds [Франко 2006: 80]; the situation that acquires admonition, warming not interference is singled out (a national trait of character of the Ukrainians – individualism is verbalized), compare: Не сварися дідку за чужу бідку – the commentary is made by I. Franko: don’t start quarreling if it does not concern you [Франко 2006: 80]. A precedent situation is verbalized that is modelled, based on anecdote the ending of which served the basis of paroemia that criticizes a groundless quarrel, perhaps, the quarrel that helps to get rid of a stress: Сварімся, бабуню! – Та за що, синочку? Та сварімся, стара тупице! А ти собачий сину, чого хочеш? – Дякую, бабуню, вже посварилисьмося – the commentary is made by I. Franko: the anecdote is about a groundless quarrel [Франко 2006: 80]. In Ukrainian Halitsian linguistic culture "a quarrel" may be emotionally expressed. It may cause an affectation state, for instance: Сваримося стіни тріщать – the commentary of I. Franko: about a loud quarrel [Франко 2006: 80]; Таку сварку почав, що був дим мало не сів на хату – the commentary is made by I. Franko: about a loud quarrel [Франко 2006: 81]. A falk wisdom states: Від сварки до бійки рукою подати – the commentary from I. Franko: a quarrel causes fighting [Франко 2006: 81]; В сварці один другого не цілує, чи малює – the commentary is made by I. Franko: in a quarrel nobody is spared [Франко 2006: 81]; Не вдаваймося в сварку, бо будеш битий – the commentary: "an admonition is said to a man who is fond of fighting" [Франко 2006: 81].

In paroemia fund the concept-image of a person who is fond of fighting is verbalized, a person is warned, for instance: А сварив бис сі з сорочков – the commentary of I. Franko: "is said about a person who is fond of making quarrels". Sometimes I. Franko explains the semantic structure of a cursing, gives its semantic-pragmatic motivation, for instance: сорочка найближча до тіла [Франко 2006: 80]. People who are fond of fighting are usually made fun of: Дай Боже вам посваритись, а нам подивитись [Франко 2006: 81]; Уперед сварили сі, а тепер цілують сі – the commentary is made by I. Franko: a behaviour characteristics is verbalized that implies the change of a mood [Франко 2006: 80]; Я сі з тобов не годен висварити – the commentary: is said about a man who is fond of fighting [Франко 2006: 80].

There examples of cursings among neighbors who are fond of fighting: Я найму кого, аби сі з тобов на шихти сварив – the commentary is made by I. Franko: is said about a neighbor, a person had a fight with. The explanation given to the word “шихтa” / “шихта в Бориславі” – a twelve-hour work [Франко 2006: 80]. The situation that concerns a quarrel between people who are familiar: Розійшлися як чорна хмара – the commentary: is said about ex-lovers, close friends [Франко 2006: 50].

Conclusions. Each linguistic culture and language consciousness create the code of speech behavior that represents people’s inclination to express negative emotions (dissatisfaction, irritation, anger, hatred, fear) affectation states or a negative mood. The above mentioned state is verbalized with speech formulas of a quarrel, cursing or threats. In paroemia fund of the Ukrainians there are many units are aimed at criticizing negative activities, verbalization of some irony, indirect expression of admonition, warning, recommendations, emphasis on traditions, religious bans, moral imperatives. The form of an indirect communication, euphemism-phrases is used as well as vulgarisms peculiar to modeling of a negative communication. As it can be seen people’s consciousness reflects the knowledge of psychology, laws and rules of a successful communication. All these aspects are described, formulated and characterized in the sphere of the modern humanities.

Perspective is determined by the necessity to single out the peculiarities of modeling of paroemia formulas that concern the specificity of verbalization of the negative emotions and states in Ukrainian, Russian and English linguistic cultures.

References. 

Космеда 2010: Космеда, Т.А. Комунікативний кодекс українців у пареміях [Текст] / Т. А. Космеда. – Дрогобич : Коло, 2010. – 272 с.

Космеда 2010: Космеда, Т.А. Комунікативна компетенція Івана Франка та особливості його риторики [Текст] / Т. А. Космеда // Іван Франко : дух, наука, думка, воля матеріали Міжнародного наукового конгресу, присвяченого 150-річчю від дня народження Івана Франка. – Львів : Видавничий центр Львівського національного університету імені Івана Франка, 2010. – Т. 2. – С. 73-85.

Сліпецька 2011: Сліпецька, В.Д. Прокляття як засіб репрезентації негативної комунікації [Текст] / В. Д. Сліпецька // Збірник наукових праць Харківського національного педагогічного університету імені Г. С. Сковороди. – Харків, 2011. – Вип. 32. – С. 236-241.

Сліпецька 2013: Сліпецька, В.Д. Вияв негативних емоцій в українській, російській і англійській лінгвокультурах : мовленнєвий жанр прокляття [Текст] / В. Д. Сліпецька // Studia Ukrainica Posnaniensia. – Познань : Видавничий центр Познаньського університету імені Адама Міцкевича, 2013. – С. 195-200.

Шаховский 2008: Шаховский, В.И. Лингвистическая теория эмоций [Текст] / В. И. Шаховский. – М. : Гнозис, 2008. – 416 с. – Библиограф. : с. 389-407. – ISBN 978-5-94244-019-0.

Шаховский 2010: Шаховский, В.И. Эмоции : долингвистика, лингвистика, лингвокультурология [Текст] / В. И. Шаховский. – М. : Книжный дом ЛИБРОКОМ, 2010. – 128 с. – Библиограф. : с. 118-124. – ISBN 978-5-397-00850-1.

Шкіцька 2012: Шкіцька, І.Ю. Маніпулятивні тактики позитиву : лінгвістичний аспект [Текст] / І. Ю. Шкіцька. – К. : Видавничий дім Дмитра Бураго, 2012. – 440 с. – Бібліограф. : с. 392-435. – ISBN 978- 966-489-138-4.

Sources and Abbreviations

Галицько-руські 2006: Галицько-руські народні приповідки : [у 3 тт.] / [зібрав, упорядкував і пояснив Др. Іван Франко]. – Львів : ВЦ ЛНУ ім. І. Франка, 2006.2-е вид. – Т. 1. – 818 с. – Т. 2. – 813 с. – Т. 3. – 699 с.

                                                  

Наукова студія присвячена аналізу законів комунікативного простору, репрезентованого у вигляді проклять, де зафіксовані мовленнєві формули, моделі комунікативних поведінкових тактик, які зреалізовуються представниками відповідної лінгвокультури в ситуації актуалізації негативних емоцій, станів, почуттів для омовлення погрози, сварки та їх оцінки з урахуванням специфіки національного характеру відповідної лінгвоспільноти.

Ключові слова: лінгвокультура, прокляття, комунікативний простір, мовленнєві формули, погроза, сварка, негативні емоції, національний характер.

Available 10 September 2013.