Customs Term as Unit of Ukrainian Sectoral Terminology System

 © The Editorial Team of Linguistic Studies

Linguistic Studies
Volume 29, 2014, pp. 115-122

Customs Term as Unit of Ukrainian Sectoral Terminology System

Vira Deyneka

Article first published online: October 10, 2014 


Additional information

 Author Information: 

Vira M. Deyneka, Senior Lecturer at Department of Ukrainian Studies, Donetsk National University of Economics and Trade named after Mykhayilo Tugan-Baranovsky. Correspondence: deyver1@gmail.com

Citation: 
Deyneka, V. Customs Term as Unit of Ukrainian Sectoral Terminology System [Text] / V. 
Deyneka // Linguistic Studies collection of scientific papers / Donetsk National University Ed. by A. P. Zahnitko. – Donetsk : DonNU, 2014. – Vol. 29. – Pp. 115-122. – ISBN 966-7277-88-7

Publication History:
Volume first published online: October 10, 2014

Article received: 30 September 2013, accepted: February 20, 2014 and first published online: October 10, 2014

Annotation.

The article analyzes characteristic property and determinative features of the customs term as the nominative unit of customs terminology, which is one of the oldest, but also the least studied in Ukrainian linguistics.

Keywords: custom vocabulary, term, terminology nomination, terminology system.



Abstract.

CUSTOMS TERM AS UNIT OF UKRAINIAN SECTORAL TERMINOLOGY SYSTEM

Vira Deyneka

Department of Ukrainian Studies, Donetsk National University of Economics and Trade named after Mykhayilo Tugan-Baranovsky, Donetsk, Donetsk region, Ukraine

 

Available 30 September 2013.

 

Abstract

Relevance

The modern history of Ukrainian society and the realities of today show that customs affairs are one of the most important manifestations of state sovereignty. This fact causes special attention to it from the legislative and executive power in the formation of international-legal position and resolving the internal problems of the state. Under these conditions, there is an accumulation of necessary lexical material that is ordered by language based on development trends and processes which regulate the formation of appropriate terminological. Now terminological system of customs affairs Ukrainian language is undergoing a period of active formation and development therefore customs term as a means of nomination special concepts of professional sublanguage requires special attention of experts on terminology.

Number of modern dissertations among which M.B. Verbenyets (legal terminology), M.H. Zelentsova (terminology of management), T.S. Kondrat'yeva (market terminology), V.V. Nikitina (business terminology), D.P. Shapran (marketing terminology) and others is devoted to the problems of building sectoral terminological systems that have not been made or had no proper development in a statelessness of Ukraine. Terminological studies devoted to the research of specific features of industry term highlight the different views of scientists on its essence. The problem of establishing mandatory and optional features of the term also remains unresolved, indicating a need for a broad approach to the term – the concept of multifaceted and complex – in the study sectoral terminology. Lack of substantial research in this area makes the relevance of proposed research.

Purpose

The aim of the proposed paper is an analysis of linguistic status of customs term and clarifying the specifics of its defining characteristics.

Tasks

The stated purpose makes it necessary resolving tasks: 1) to find out the specifics of customs term as a linguistic sign relevant field, and 2) to analyze its determinative features and to submit definition of customs term on this ground.

Conclusion

Thus, in the study, "custom time" is defined as nominative lexical unit (word or word combination), which is part of customs terminology is taken for the exact name of the specific concepts and requires a clear definition. So, the priority for customs term we consider nominative-definitive function, systemic nature and conventionality.

Accordingly, the main features of the customs term as a sign of industry customs terminology author considers the following: 1) nominationality, 2) the availability of definition, 3) conventionality, 4) clearly defined place in customs terminology (terminology of customs affairs), 5) tendency to unambiguity within terminology of customs affairs, 6) accuracy of denote concepts of customs area, 7) lack of expressive values, 8) system relations and ties within the customs terminology, adjacent sectoral terminology and general vocabulary.

Perspective

The relevance of further study of the customs term as a unit of the customs terminology in Ukrainian language (e.g., research of terminology nomination types) due primarily needs of terminological regulation in this area of field of professional activities and the need for codification of sectoral vocabulary.

 

Research highlights

► The article analyzes characteristic property and determinative features of the customs term as the nominative unit of customs terminology, which is one of the oldest, but also the least studied in Ukrainian linguistics.

Keywords: custom vocabulary, term, terminology nomination, terminology system.

 

References

Grinev, S. V. (1993). Vvedenie v terminovedenie. Moskva: Izdatel'stvo Moskovskogo liceja.

Kim, L. A. & Pristrayiko, T. S. (2008). Cherty analitizma v terminosistemah russkogo jazyka. Dnepropetrovsk: Porogi.

Leyichik, V. M. & Besekirska L. Terminovedenie: predmet, metody, struktura. Belostok: Izdatel'stvo Belostokskogo universiteta.

Osveyichik, S. V. (2006). Formuvannja ukrainskoyi ekologichnoyi terminologiyi. Dis. … kand. filol. nauk. Kyyiv.

Osypenko, Z. M. (1974). Riznovydy terminiv i yikh semantychni osoblyvosti. Movoznavstvo, 2, 65-69.

Rusanivs’kyiy, V. M. (1988). Struktura leksychnoyi i gramatychnoyi semantyky. Kyyiv: Naukova dumka.

Symonenko, L. O. (1991). Formuvannya ukr. biol. terminolohiyi. K.: Nauk. dumka.

Symonenko, L. O. (2003). Ukrayins'ka terminolohichna leksykohrafiya za roky nezalezhnosti: zdobutky i prorakhunky. Ukrayins'ka terminolohiya i suchasnist': zb. nauk. prats', V, 18-22. K.: KNEU.

Superanskaja, A. V. & Podol’skaja, N. V. & Vasil’eva, N. V. (1989). Obshchaja terminologija: Voprosy teoriyi. Moskva: Nauka.

Fedorchenko, E. A. (2004). Stanovlenie i razvitie terminologicheskoiy leksiki tamozhennogo dela v russkom yazyke. Dis. … kand. filol. nauk. Moskva.

 

Sources and Abbreviations

VTD, (2004). Bashirov, I. H. Vvedenie v tamozhennoe delo. Donetsk: DonNUET.

VTSSUM, (2002). Velykyy tlumachnyy slovnyk suchasnoyi ukrayins'koyi movy. K.: Irpin'; VTF "Perun".

MKU, (2010). Mytnyy kodeks Ukrayiny. H.: Odissey.

MKU-13 (2013). Mytnyy kodeks Ukrayiny: normatyvni dok-ty z urakhuvannyam ostannikh zmin v redaktsiyi stanom na 23.01.2013 r. Sumy: TOV "VVP NOTIS".

NIMS, (2005). Didusenko, P. M. & Lysyts'kyy, O. V. & Pakhnevs'kyy, S. A. Narysy z istoriyi mytnoyi spravy ta mytnoho zakonodavstva Ukrayiny-Rusy. Kyyiv: Sofiya A.

SMT, (2004). Khokhlov, M. I. & Pudryk, D. V. Slovnyk mytnykh terminiv. Donetsk: VD "Kal’mius".

                                   

Correspondence: deyver1@gmail.com

Vitae

Vira M. Deyneka, Senior Lecturer at Department of Ukrainian Studies, Donetsk National University of Economics and Trade named after Mykhayilo Tugan-Baranovsky. Her research areas include term, terminology, and terminography.


Article.

Vira Deyneka

УДК 81’276.6:339.543

CUSTOMS TERM AS UNIT OF UKRAINIAN SECTORAL

TERMINOLOGY SYSTEM

 

The article analyzes characteristic property and determinative features of the customs term as the nominative unit of customs terminology, which is one of the oldest, but also the least studied in Ukrainian linguistics.

Keywords: custom vocabulary, term, terminology nomination, terminology system.

 

The modern history of Ukrainian society and the realities of today show that customs affairs are one of the most important manifestations of state sovereignty. This fact causes special attention to it from the legislative and executive power in the formation of international-legal position and resolving the internal problems of the state. Under these conditions, there is an accumulation of necessary lexical material that is ordered by language based on development trends and processes which regulate the formation of appropriate terminological. Now terminological system of customs affairs Ukrainian language is undergoing a period of active formation and development therefore customs term as a means of nomination special concepts of professional sublanguage requires special attention of experts on terminology.

Number of modern dissertations among which M.B. Verbenyets (legal terminology), M.H. Zelentsova (terminology of management), T.S. Kondrat'yeva (market terminology), V.V. Nikitina (business terminology), D.P. Shapran (marketing terminology) and others is devoted to the problems of building sectoral terminological systems that have not been made or had no proper development in a statelessness of Ukraine. Terminological studies devoted to the research of specific features of industry term highlight the different views of scientists on its essence. The problem of establishing mandatory and optional features of the term also remains unresolved, indicating a need for a broad approach to the term – the concept of multifaceted and complex – in the study sectoral terminology.

The aim of the proposed paper is an analysis of linguistic status of customs term and clarifying the specifics of its defining characteristics. The stated purpose makes it necessary resolving tasks: 1) to find out the specifics of customs term as a linguistic sign relevant field, and 2) to analyze its determinative features and to submit definition of customs term on this ground.

Customs business is an area that has a long history of development, during which it has been and remains one of the most important factors of statehood and independence, significant evidence of its power and financial sovereignty. The first material information on the duty on the territory of modern Ukraine belongs to the 9th century. Then, in the present territory of Ukraine, powerful Kievan Rus, in which above all the main source of the kniazes income was tribute, and fee for legal proceedings, fines and customs duties owned to other sources, arises and develops for centuries (until the conquest by the Mongols and Tatars). Historical overview of the problem makes it possible to identify the stages of evolution of customs and legal institutions the territory of modern Ukraine and, consequently, the formation of a customs conceptual apparatus in Ukrainian language.

The periodization of formation customs affairs in Ukraine, which is led by historians, coincides with periods of statehood / statelessness of our country that certainly effect on the processes of creating Ukrainian customs terminology:

1)      the period of Kievan Rus and Mongol-Tatar dominion (9th – 13th c.c.);

2)      customs affairs of the Ukrainian lands in the Polish-Lithuanian period (14th с. – 1 half of 17th c.);

3)      the emergence of customs relations in Zaporizhian Sich and customs affairs during the Hetmanate (16th c. – 17th c.);

4)      the period of entry of Ukrainian lands in the Russian Empire (the end of 18th c. – beginning of 20th c.);

5)      customs business in Ukraine in the Soviet era (1917 – 1991);

6)      the period of formation and development of independent Ukraine (since 1991 – hitherto) [НІМС 2005: 8-9].

To delineate the boundaries of the field covered by the term "customs affairs" now, we give a definition of the term: “Встановлений порядок і умови переміщення товарів через митний кордон України, їх митний контроль та митне оформлення, застосування механізмів тарифного і нетарифного регулювання справляння митних платежів, ведення митної статистики, обмін митною інформацією, ведення української класифікації товарів зовнішньоекономічної діяльності, здійснення відповідно до закону державного контролю нехарчової продукції при ввезенні її на митну територію України, запобігання та протидія контрабанді, боротьба з порушеннями митних правил, організація і забезпечення діяльності митних органів та інші заходи, спрямовані на реалізацію державної політики у сфері державної митної справи, становлять державну митну справу” (‘The procedure and conditions for the movement of goods across the customs border of Ukraine, their customs control and customs clearance, application of tariff and non-tariff regulation of collection of customs duties, keeping customs statistics, the exchange of customs information, maintenance of Ukrainian goods classification of foreign activity, implementation of the state control non-food products on importation into the customs territory of Ukraine in conformity with the law, preventing and combating smuggling, the fight against violations of customs rules, organization and maintenance of customs and other measures for the implementation of the state policy in the sphere of civil customs, constitute State Customs case’) [МКУ-13: 14].

Despite the fact that history of a number of basic terms of customs in the Ukrainian language consists centuries (митник, мит, митниця, etc.), its research terminological system has been actively formed in the late 20th century. The study of sectoral terminology – as noted by L.O. Symonenko – on the one hand make it possible to trace the history of their development, the process of nomination of special terms, which goes through several stages (period of initial definitions of concepts, terminologization, attracting common words into the terminology); identify both lingual and extralingual factors affecting construction of terms, the development and establishment of terminology, facilitate the process of organizing, systematization, streamlining and codifying of the terms, enabling prediction of future trends of certain terminology as well as the entire national terminological system, but on the other hand – the rich factual material is the basis for a lexicographical works [Симоненко 2003: 19].

Traditionally, the study and description of the terms of a field of social practice in modern theory of terminology is based on lexicographical works, to be exact – on the data of sectoral terminology dictionaries. However, the scope of fixing terms in specific sources cannot fully submit to their areas of operation. In addition, terminological system of customs affairs in Ukrainian language has not been subject to complex and comprehensive studies and, consequently, its special vocabulary is not yet properly codified. There are no Ukrainian customs terminological dictionaries of linguistic type. A small number of reference publications that trace the Ukrainian terminological vocabulary of customs affairs, prepared by industry experts without specialists in terms so they lack the basic rules of lexicographic description of terms. Only part of special vocabulary of customs – vocabulary of customs law – can be regarded as codified. Codification of vocabulary of customs law is phenomenon largely specific, because it goes beyond the traditional linguistic understanding (fixing norms of sublanguage of specialty in the referential linguistic literature) when codification is associated only with the scope of fixing, and passed into the sphere of operation. Ye.O. Fedorchenko, Russian researcher, which states that "such way of codification of terminology is even more severe than the codification in the dictionary, since the notion of democratization of norm, the possibility of different scientific approaches to a particular object for language of law is unacceptable", indicates on the property of terminology of customs law [Федорченко 2004: 83].

Note that the specificity of formation of terminology of customs affairs determines the fact that "customs as science is a diversity of knowledge about the customs service and its operations, which has a comprehensive, systematic, and interdisciplinary nature" [ВТД 2004: 25].

Summary of customs affairs and tasks which are facing it, predetermine the entry of concepts to the customs terminological system, such as concepts of economy (валютна політика, управління ризиками, монопольний протекціонізм); finance (процентні квоти, іноземна валюта, податок на додану вартість); statistics (система обліку зовнішньої торгівлі, момент обліку, кількісний одлік товарів); law (адміністративне стягнення, законність, прямі закони), computer science (носій інформації, інформаційно-телекомунікаційні системи, інформаційні ресурси), criminalistics (дактилоскопічна експертиза, обшук, протокол огляду) [МКУ-13; НІМС 2005], etc. Also for terminological system of customs affairs is typical terms-word combinations that indicate the properly customs semantics of intersectoral terms: митно-тарифна політика, митний тариф, митний аукціон, протекціоністське мито, ставка ввізного мита, митна вартість, митна статистика зовнішньої торгівлі, порушення митних правил, митне розслідування, принципи митного права, митні правовідносини, дізнавач митниці, and so on [МКУ 2010; МКУ-13; НІМС 2005]. Therefore, a clear distinction between customs and other social and natural sciences is now impossible because sectoral terminological systems actively interact with each other; they often have part of common terminology fund.

The most general feature of vocabulary of all languages ​​for special purposes (LSP) scientists consider presence in it names (nominative units) denoting scientific, technical and other specialized concepts ([Гринёв 1993: 48-52] and others). According to researchers, common names, including terms are the universal lexical means of LSP. Universality of terms is their main distinguishing feature in comparison with other nominative classes used in LSP [Ким 2008: 19]. Abstract and specific objects of customs affairs can be called using terms, such as: вантаж, віза, декларування, засоби ідентифікації, карантинній огляд, квота антидемпінгова, резидент, сертифікація, товари, транспортні засоби, предмети, фрахт, фритредерство, фітоконтроль, чартер, etc. [СМТ 2004]. These lexical items is categorized in common names the fact that they represent general concepts as opposed to nouns that denote individual concepts. Common names are the terms because they represent general concepts of the special nature [Лейчик, Бесекирска 1998: 51]. So, nominationality is one of the most important features of a customs term.

Unlike the commonly used word that has lexical meaning, the term in the language system has definition. Cf. in particular lexical meaning of common words and definitions of customs terms: замовник – “той, хто замовляє що-небудь” (‘one who orders something’) [ВТССУМ 2002: 312] and замовник – субєкт господарської діяльності, який надає давальницьку сировину для вироблення готової продукції” (‘subject of business entity that provides goods made on commission for the production of finished products’) [СМТ 2004: 35]; покупець – “той, хто купує що-небудь” (‘someone who buy something’) [ВТССУМ 2002: 845] and покупецьпереможець митного аукціону, який здійснив повні розрахунки за придбані на митному аукціоні товари” (‘customs auction winner, who has made full payment for the purchased goods at the customs auction’) [СМТ 2004: 79]; взаємодія – “взаємний зв'язок між предметами у дії, а також погоджена дія між ким-небудь, чим-небудь” (‘mutual relationship between objects in action and concerted action between someone, something’) [ВТССУМ 2002: 85] and взаємодія – “комплекс організаційних заходів, спрямованих на узгодженість дії різних підрозділів, служб, посадовців під час здійснення митного контролю та митного оформлення” (‘series of administrative measures aimed at coordination of actions of various departments, services, officials at the customs control and customs clearance’) [СМТ 2004: 112].

These examples show that the value of lexemes in general literary language and terminology is somewhat different, since the terms denote the concept of customs affairs and demand consequently their explanation in terms of this industry. Instead, common words call events, predicting their interpretation to the public and not for specialists in a particular field. Thus, the definition of the term it is requisite that plays an important role in the allocation of terminological lexicon among the vocabulary of the language [Гринёв 1993]. And it is a clear definition of the term makes it a component of a sectoral terminological system. Cf., for example: маршрут – 1) in the terminology of customs affairs is “поїзд установленої маси і довжини, склад якого сформовано вантажовідправником або залізницею” (‘train installed weight and length whose composition is formed by the shipper or the railroad’) [СМТ 2004: 126]; 2) in the geology system of terms – “район розвідування, обстеження, що проводиться геологічною партією, групою геологів і т. ін., а також похід у такий район з певним завданням” (‘area of exploration, inspection, conducted by geological party, group of geologists and so on, and hiking in a region with a specific task’) [ВТССУМ 2002: 511-512].

Thematic accuracy, which is, in our opinion, one of the most important features of the customs term is realized with a definition, which in its turn determines conventionality of its value. Conventionality – a defining trait of terminological lexicon that is the basis of sublanguage in any specialty. The term to designate a particular concept is always conventional set, chosen, as well as its content, expressing through the definition of the most essential features of the corresponding concept it is the result of conscious collective agreement.

Thematic accuracy of the term is in close contact with nature of concept denoted by it. The concept, which is referred by the term, is moving; it is subject to change according to deepening knowledge and ideas about subject area, so, the definition that discloses meaning of the term varies over time. The term is a result of "verbalization of professional knowledge as a cognitive model, in some way organized and aimed at self-development. As a sign unit the term refers not with static denotatums, namely cognitive-discursive models. In a measure of the development of industrial science ... may be a redistribution of the scientific information between terms or rename a particular piece of scientific knowledge" [Федорченко 2004: 87]. For example, in the Customs Code of Ukraine 2002 спеціальна митна зонамитний режим, відповідно до якого до товарів, які ввозяться на території відповідних типів спеціальних (вільних) економічних зон із-за меж митної території України, а також до товарів, які вивозяться з територій зазначених зон за межі митної території України, не застосовуються заходи тарифного і нетарифного регулювання, якщо інше не передбачене законом” (‘customs regime under which the goods imported into the territory of the types of special (free) economic zones from outside the customs territory of Ukraine, as well as goods that are exported from the territories of specified areas outside the customs territory of Ukraine shall not apply measures of tariff and non-tariff regulation, unless otherwise provided by law’) [МКУ 2010: 101]; імпортмитний режим, відповідно до якого товари ввозяться на митну територію України для вільного обігу без обмеження строку їх перебування на цій території та можуть використовуватися без будь-яких митних обмежень” (‘customs regime under which goods are imported into the customs territory of Ukraine for free circulation without limiting the term of their stay in the area and can be used without any customs restrictions’) [МКУ 2010: 91]. In a new the Customs Code of Ukraine (became applicable at June 1, 2012) вільна митна зонамитний режим, відповідно до якого іноземні товари ввозяться на територію вільної митної зони та вивозяться з цієї території за межі митної території України із звільненням від оподаткування митними платежами та без застосування заходів нетарифного регулювання зовнішньоекономічної діяльності, а українські товари ввозяться на територію вільної митної зони із оподаткуванням митними платежами та застосуванням заходів нетарифного регулювання” (‘customs regime under which foreign goods are imported into the territory of free customs zone and exported from the territory outside the customs territory of Ukraine with exemption from taxation of customs duties and without the use of non-tariff regulation of foreign economic activity, and Ukrainian goods are imported into the territory of free customs zone with tax customs duties and the use of non-tariff measures’) [МКУ-13: 83] (we observe renaming mode of the customs regime спеціальна митна зона); імпорт (випуск для вільного обігу) – митний режим, відповідно до якого іноземні товари після сплати всіх митних платежів, встановлених законами України на імпорт цих товарів, на виконання усіх необхідних митних формальностей випускаються для вільного обігу на митній території України” (‘customs regime under which foreign goods after the payment of all customs duties, set with the Law of Ukraine on the import of these goods for execution of all necessary customs formalities are released for free circulation in the customs territory of Ukraine’) [МКУ-13: 59] (we observe refinement of customs regime name імпорт). Comparing these examples, we can conclude that every term fixed some definition, and the system of terminological nominations developed in accordance with the conceptual apparatus of sectoral science. However, we note that the changes in the above definitions of terms, as well as changes in the external form of the terms вільна митна зона ‘free customs zone’ and імпорт ‘imports’, their place in the system of terms remain the same (this is names of the same customs regime), but because this is not about homonyms of terms as the legal consequences of these terms usage, even in the existing differences in definitions, for the participants of levying of customs formalities are unchanged.

Semantic precision and semantic certainty are inherent more for terms than commonly used vocabulary – Ye.O. Fedorchenko says – but at the same time they are one of the most moving layers among the vocabulary of the language. This is due not only to the emergence of new terms to name new special concepts, but also with a constant internal dynamics of a terminological system which caused a continuous process of cognition and attempt to optimize language means of nomination of concepts, phenomena and realities of professional sphere [Федорченко 2004: 90-91].

Semantic accuracy of the term to a certain extent is caused by its morphological structure. Despite the fact that the compact term facilitates operating the concept in the process of science and practical activities, the definition of accuracy is more important than the short form of the term. The length of the term shall be sufficient to refer to each concept and distinguish it from a number of related concepts. Furthermore, it should take into account the specifics of a particular industry that caters to one or other terminology [Овсейчик 2006: 37].

As rightly observed Z.M. Osypenko, an exact reproduction of conceptual content sometimes requires not reduction but expansion of the term [Осипенко 1974: 9]. Thus, for more accurate designation of the customs concepts in the terminology of customs affairs except one-word terms (мито, перевізник, резидент) are widely used two- (антидемпінгове мито), three- (уповноважений економічний оператор) and multicomponent (обєкти права інтелектуальної власності) terms [МКУ-13]. As you can see, than difficult semantically to denote a sectoral concept, so greater the number of components it contains. Having regard to these facts, it cannot be considered a disadvantage of the customs term of his multicomponent nature. If the term of customs field is a word combination that consists of unrelated words to describe a particular sectoral concept, it provides a systematic of term and determines the relationship of this concept to other concepts of the customs area.

The definition of the term fixes its systemic relationship with other elements of a terminological system, since the meaning of the term is explained through other terms and their meaning the term gains solely as members of a terminology system. Terminology of customs affairs is an ordered system in which a position of each term is determined by correlation of signified concept with other concepts. E.g., the term митне оформлення ‘customs clearance’ has the definition: “Виконання митних формальностей, необхідних для випуску товарів, транспортних засобів комерційного призначення” (‘Implementation of customs formalities, necessary for the production of goods, vehicles, for commercial use’) [МКУ-13: 9]. The value of this term which is explained by using terms митні формальності ‘customs formalities’, випуск товарів ‘produce goods’, транспортні засоби комерційного призначення ‘vehicles for commercial use’ can be understood only for specialist of customs field that indicates on sign of limited scope of use of the customs vocabulary and its relatedness to a certain subject area as the main distinguishing feature of special lexicon among common vocabulary.

Comparison of one term with different concepts of a subject area is very desirable because it can cause some confusion when it is applied. Therefore, some linguists consider unambiguity is mandatory requirement for the terms ([Русанівський 1988: 169] and others). But often in the literature the view that the terms are only trend towards unambiguity is expressed ([Суперанская, Подольская, Васильева 1989: 129] and others). We support this idea, since it is quite true for the customs terminology. According to our observations, studied terminology includes terms under which several definitions in the literature are fixed, for example: вантажне місце1) кінцевий продукт операцій з упакування вантажу, що складається з пакувального комплекту та його вмісту й підготовлений до перевезення; 2) умовна одиниця вантажу для приймання його для перевезення або здачі вантажоодержувачу при здійсненні навантаження або розвантаження рухомого складу (‘1) the final product of operations with packaging cargo, consisting of the packaging and its contents prepared for transport, and 2) the notional unit of cargo for its acceptance for transportation or delivery to the consignee in the exercise of loading or unloading of rolling stock’) [СМТ 2004: 111-112]; товари1) будь-яке рухоме майно (у тому числі валютні цінності, культурні цінності) електрична, теплова та інші види енергії, а також транспортні засоби, за винятком транспортних засобів, що використовуються виключно для перевезення пасажирів і товарів через митний кордон України; 2) матеріальні та нематеріальні активи, а також цінні папери та деривативи, що використовуються в будь-яких операціях, крім операцій з їх випуску (емісії) та погашення; 3) будь-яка продукція, послуги, роботи, права інтелектуальної власності та інші немайнові права, призначені для відчуження, що переміщуються через митний кордон України та не можуть бути віднесені до особистих речей або транспортних засобів та окремих номерних вузлів до них (‘1) any movable property (including currency values​​, cultural values​​), electrical, thermal and other energy and vehicles, except vehicles used exclusively for the transportation of passengers and goods across the customs border of Ukraine; 2) tangible and intangible assets as well as securities and derivatives that are used in all transactions, except for transactions with their release (emission) and maturity; 3) any products, services, employment, intellectual property rights and other property rights, designed to alienation, crossing the customs border of Ukraine and cannot be attributed to personal belongings or vehicles and license individual nodes to them’) [СМТ 2004: 100].

According to our observations, customs terms generally devoid of expressiveness within the terminological field. We can say on the expressive words if it is part of expressive utterance and largely determines the expression of the whole context. Logical sense of the term makes it neutral language sign that carries relevant sectoral information. Taking into account the special destination functional of customs vocabulary, it is difficult not to agree with L.O. Symonenko that 'the term unlike a common word, stylistically is more regulated, its "neutrality", "emotion", "expressive" differ from what is called neutral, emotional and expressive vocabulary in general use" [Симоненко 1991: 15].

Expressive nuances can be found in a small part of the stylistically marked linguistic units of customs vocabulary that due desemantization have gained a new conceptual meaning, for example: “зелений коридор”, невидимий експорт, червоний коридор”, чиста торгівля, чорний ринок, “прозорікордони, “розмитікордони, “важкі наркотики, “слідова картина”, “ядромаршруту [МКУ-13; НІМС 2005; СМТ 2004], etc. As we can see, some of this vocabulary in the literature served within quotation marks that indicate the connotative indication of following terminological units. Note that the use of graphical marks (“”) to refer to certain concepts of customs field in many cases requires of regimentation. For example, the term зелений коридор has the following graphic variants of use in the literature: зелений коридор”, зеленийкоридор, зеленийкоридор. We support the view of those scholars who believe the problem of terminological nature of these units that served in the quotation marks cannot be solved relying on linguistic competence and linguistic flair of authors of special texts, we must proceed from the specifics of lexical-semantic system of language; it is inappropriate quotation marks to highlight the part of the composite term in scientific text; jargon can be served in quotes. The highlight of professional vocabulary, scientific metaphor with quotation marks is the most used, "because the perfect term the quotes does not require" [Овсейчик 2006: 34].

Thus, in our study, "custom time" is defined as nominative lexical unit (word or word combination), which is part of customs terminology is taken for the exact name of the specific concepts and requires a clear definition. So, the priority for customs term we consider nominative-definitive function, systemic nature and conventionality.

Accordingly, the main features of the customs term as a sign of industry customs terminology we consider the following: 1) nominationality, 2) the availability of definition, 3) conventionality, 4) clearly defined place in customs terminology (terminology of customs affairs), 5) tendency to unambiguity within terminology of customs affairs, 6) accuracy of denote concepts of customs area, 7) lack of expressive values​​, 8) system relations and ties within the customs terminology, adjacent sectoral terminology and general vocabulary.

The relevance of further study of the customs term as a unit of the customs terminology in Ukrainian language (e.g., research of terminology nomination types) due primarily needs of terminological regulation in this area of field of professional activities and the need for codification of sectoral vocabulary.

References. 

Гринёв 1993: Гринёв, С.В. Введение в терминоведение [Текст] / С. В. Гринёв. – М. : Изд-во Московского лицея, 1993. – 309 с.

Ким, Пристайко 2008: Ким, Л.А. Черты аналитизма в терминосистемах русского языка [Текст] / Л. А. Ким, Т. С. Пристайко. – Днепропетровск : Пороги, 2008. – 148 с.

Лейчик, Бесекирска 1998: Лейчик, В.М., Бесекирска, Л. Терминоведение : предмет, методы, структура [Текст] / В. М. Лейчик, Л. Бесекирска. – Белосток : Изд-во Белостокского университета, 1998. – 180 с.

Освейчик 2006: Овсейчик, С.В. Формування української екологічної термінології [Текст] : дис. … канд. філол. наук : спец. 10.02.01 / С. В. Овсейчик ; Київський націон. ун-т ім. Т. Шевченка. – К., 2006. – 199 с.

Осипенко 1974: Осипенко, З.М. Різновиди термінів і їх семантичні особливості [Текст] / З. М. Осипенко // Мовознавство. – 1974. – № 2. – С. 65-69.

Русанівський 1988: Русанівський, В.М. Структура лексичної і граматичної семантики [Текст] / В. М. Русанівський. – К. : Наук. думка, 1988. – 236 с.

Симоненко 1991: Симоненко, Л.О. Формування укр. біол. термінології [Текст] / Л. О. Симоненко – К. : Наук. думка, 1991. – 152 с.

Симоненко 2003: Симоненко, Л.О. Українська термінологічна лексикографія за роки незалежності: здобутки і прорахунки [Текст] / Л. О. Симоненко // Українська термінологія і сучасність : зб. наук. праць. – К. : КНЕУ, 2003. – Вип. V. – С. 18-22.

Суперанская, Подольская, Васильева 1989: Суперанская, А.В., Подольская, Н.В., Васильева, Н.В. Общая термінологія : Вопросы теории [Текст] / А. В. Суперанская, Н. В. Подольская, Н. В. Васильева. – М. : Наука, 1989. – 246 с.

Федорченко 2004: Федорченко, Е.А. Становление и развитие терминологической лексики таможенного дела в русском языке [Текст] : дис. … д-ра филол наук : спец. 10.02.01 / Е. А. Федорченко. – М. : МГОУ, 2004. – 570 с.

                                                                                                        

Sources and Abbreviations

         ВТД 2004: Баширов, И.Х. Введение в таможенное дело [Текст] : учебное пособие / И. Х. Баширов. – Донецк : ДонНУЕТ, 2004. – 214 с.

ВТССУМ 2002: Великий тлумачний словник сучасної української мови [Текст] / уклад. і голов. ред. В. Т. Бусел. – К. : Ірпінь : ВТФ Перун, 2002. – 1140 с.

МКУ 2010: Митний кодекс України [Текст] / [відп. за випуск С.В. Карплюк]. – Х. : Одіссей, 2010. – 215 с.

МКУ-13: Митний кодекс України [Текст] : нормативні док-ти з урахуванням останніх змін в редакції станом на 23.01.2013 р. – Суми : ТОВ «ВВП НОТІС», 2013. – 324 с.

НІМС 2005: Дідусенко, П.М., Лисицький, О.В., Пахневський, С.А. Нариси з історії митної справи та митного законодавства України-Руси [Текст] / П. М. Дідусенко, О. В. Лисицький, С. А. Пахневський та ін. – Київ : Софія А, 2005. – 635 с.

СМТ 2004: Хохлов, М.І., Пудрик, Д.В. Словник митних термінів [Текст] / М. І. Хохлов, Д. В. Пудрик. – Донецьк : ВД «Кальміус», 2004. – 159 с.

 

У статті з’ясовується специфіка та аналізуються визначальні властивості митного терміна як номінативної одиниці митної терміносистеми, яка є однією з найдавніших, але водночас і найменш досліджених в український лінгвістиці.

Ключові слова: митна лексика, термін, термінологічна номінація, термінологічна система.

Available 30 September 2013.