Functioning of the Ukrainianisms-Artefacts in Fiction Texts Written by V. Korolenko (Dedicated to His 160th Anniversary)

 © The Editorial Team of Linguistic Studies

Linguistic Studies
Volume 30, 2015, pp. 125-129

Functioning of the Ukrainianisms-Artefacts in Fiction Texts Written by V. Korolenko (Dedicated to His 160th Anniversary)

Halyna Namachynska

Article first published online: August 1, 2015 


Additional information

 Author Information: 

Halyna Namachynska is a Teacher of English, researcher at the Department of Language and Intercultural Communication in Drohobych Ivan Franko State Pedagogical University (Sambir, Lviv region, Ukraine). Correspondence: fokysnam@ukr.net

Citation: 
Namachynska, Halyna. Functioning of the Ukrainianisms-Artefacts in Fiction Texts Written by V. Korolenko (Dedicated to His 160th Anniversary) [Text] / Halyna namachynska // 
 Лінгвістичні студії : міжнародний зб. наук. праць. – Київ – Вінниця : ДонНУ, 2015. – Випуск 30. – С. 125-129. / Linguistic Studies collection of scientific papers / Donetsk National University Ed. by A. P. Zahnitko. – Kyiv – Vinnytsia : DonNU, 2015. – Vol. 30. – Pp. 125-129. 

Publication History:
Volume first published online: August 1, 2015

Article received: December 2, 2014, accepted: February 20, 2015 and first published online: August 1, 2015

Annotation.

The article focuses on the analysis of functioning of the lexical-semantic Ukrainianisms that nominate the Ukrainian national instruments and the names of persons who play these instruments. Besides semantics, the pragmatic constituent of the analyzed lexemes, their connotations have been singled out. The analyzed sample may be used to represent the nominations in the Dictionary of the Ukrainianisms in the Russian language.

Keywords: lexical-semantic Ukrainianisms, pragmatic constituent, connotation, the Dictionary of the Ukrainianisms.



Abstract.

FUNCTIONING OF THE UKRAINIANISMS-ARTEFACTS IN FICTION TEXTS WRITTEN BY V. KOROLENKO (DEDICATED TO HIS 160TH ANNIVERSARY)

Halyna Namachynska

Researcher at the Department of Language and Intercultural Communication in Drohobych Ivan Franko State Pedagogical University, Drohobych, Lviv region, Ukraine


Available 2 December 2014.


Abstract

Revelance

The Ukrainian language has a tradition of functioning as a donor language that affects the enrichment of lexical-semantic and stylistic resources of the Russian language. Based on the analysis of the certain processes of semantic adaptations and the functional-stylistic use which are used today, there is a need to define the features of the development the Ukrainianisms in Russian, it is necessary to develop the appropriate methods of their qualifications and represent the Ukrainisms in Russian in a particular lexicographical source. Of course, the Ukrainianisms in Russian as a consequence of the appropriate interlingual contacts have some tradition of the research and fixing in lexicographical sources (Interpretative Dictionary of "Great Russian" language by V. Dahl, Dictionary of Modern Russian Language). But there is no dictionary of the Ukrainianisms in the Russian language.

Purpose

The purpose is to describe the features of functioning of musical instruments' names and nominations of people who play these instruments, which represent the Ukrainian culture. Material of the research – the story "The Blind Musician" by V. Korolenko.

Tasks

The main tasks of the paper are 1) the analysis of functioning of the lexical-semantic Ukrainianisms that nominate the Ukrainian national instruments and the names of persons who play these instruments, 2) disunity of the pragmatic constituent of the analyzed lexemes, their connotations.

Conclusion

In Korolenko's stories the Ukrainianisms have been found. The words bandore (bandore player), kobza (kobza player), lyre (lyre player) belong to the Ukrainianisms in Russian. The above mentioned Ukrainianisms are fixed in the Dictionary of the Russian language by V.I. Dahl.

Perspective

The perspective of the paper is the future dictionary of the Ukrainianisms in the Russian language.

 

Research highlights

► The article focuses on the analysis of functioning of the lexical-semantic Ukrainianisms that nominate the Ukrainian national instruments and the names of persons who play these instruments. ► Besides semantics, the pragmatic constituent of the analyzed lexemes, their connotations have been singled out. ► The analyzed sample may be used to represent the nominations in the Dictionary of the Ukrainianisms in the Russian language.

Keywords: lexical-semantic Ukrainianisms, pragmatic constituent, connotation, the Dictionary of the Ukrainianisms.

 

References

Dal', V. I. (1978). Tolkovyj slovar' zhivogo velikorusskogo jazyka. Moskva: Russkij jazyk.

Derman, A. (1946). Zhittja V. G. Korolenka. Moskva, Leningrad: Gosudarstvennoe izdatel'stvo detskoj literatury Ministerstva obrazovanija RSFSR.

Korolenko, V. G. (1956). "Les shumit" (Polesskaja legenda): Sbornik rasskazov. M.: Hudozhestvennaja literature.

Korolenko, V. G. (1956). "Slepoj muzykant": Sbornik rasskazov. M.: Hudozhestvennaja literature.

Kosmeda, T. (2000). Aksiolohichni aspekty prahmalinhvistyky: formuvannya i rozvytok katehoriyi otsinky. L'viv: LNU im. I. Franka.

Krysin, L. P. (1968). Inshomovne slovo v suchasniy rosiys'kiy movi. M.: Nauka.

Truhanenko, A. V. (2006). Osnovi poetiki V.G. Korolenko. L'vіv: Vidavnichij dіm "Spol".

Khotkevych, H. (1930). Muzychni instrumenty ukrayins'koho narodu. Kharkiv.

 

Correspondence: fokysnam@ukr.net

Vitae

Halyna Namachynska is a Teacher of English, researcher at the Department of Language and Intercultural Communication in Drohobych Ivan Franko State Pedagogical University. Her areas of the research interest include the etymological layer of Modern English, Ukrainian, and Russian.


Article.

Halyna Namachynska

УДК 821.161.2.09(092)

FUNCTIONING OF THE UKRAINIANISMS-ARTEFACTS IN FICTION TEXTS WRITTEN BY V. KOROLENKO (DEDICATED TO HIS 160TH ANNIVERSARY)

 

The article focuses on the analysis of functioning of the lexical-semantic Ukrainianisms that nominate the Ukrainian national instruments and the names of persons who play these instruments. Besides semantics, the pragmatic constituent of the analyzed lexemes, their connotations have been singled out. The analyzed sample may be used to represent the nominations in the Dictionary of the Ukrainianisms in the Russian language.

Keywords: lexical-semantic Ukrainianisms, pragmatic constituent, connotation, the Dictionary of the Ukrainianisms.

 

Problem and relevance of the investigation. The Ukrainian language has a tradition of functioning as a donor language that affects the enrichment of lexical-semantic and stylistic resources of the Russian language. Based on the analysis of the certain processes of semantic adaptations and the functional-stylistic use which are used today, there is a need to define the features of development the Ukrainianisms in Russian, it is necessary to develop the appropriate methods of their qualifications and represent the Ukrainisms in Russian in a particular lexicographical source. Of course, the Ukrainisms in Russian as a consequence of the appropriate interlingual contacts have some tradition of the research and fixing in lexicographical sources (Interpretative Dictionary of "Great Russian" language by V. Dahl, Dictionary of Modern Russian Language). But there is no dictionary of the Ukrainianisms in the Russian language.

The degree of the problem investigation. Modern sociolinguistics is characterized by a tendency to study an interlingual communication as a source of appearance of borrowings in different languages: in Ukrainian (B. Azhnyuk, D. Barannik, N. Dybyiak, Y. Zhluktenko, T. Kyyak, L. Kochan, L. Matsko, O. Styshov, L. Struhanets etc.), Russian (V. Aristov, E. Volodarska, L. Wilkens, L. Krysin [Крисін 1968], A. Larionov, A. Mayorov, A. Molodkina, O. Solohub, O. Shakhraiy), English (B. Hansen, H. Hitchings, A. Stanforth, S. Thomson), Italian (I. Chelysheva), German (R. Brunner, H. Fink, M. Lenhert), Polish (V. Blanar, T. Lehr-Splawinski), French (B. Hak) and the others. The Russian-Ukrainian language links have been investigated by A. Horbach, H. Izhakevych, T. Kosmeda [Космеда 2000], M. Kocherhan, D. Miller, H. Matsyuk, N. Ozerov, T. Chertoryzka and the others. V. Korolenko is one of them.

The goal of the article is to describe the features of functioning of musical instruments' names and nominations of people who play these instruments, which represent the Ukrainian culture. Material of the research – the story "The blind musician" by V. Korolenko.

The main tasks of the paper are 1) the analysis of functioning of the lexical-semantic Ukrainianisms that nominate the Ukrainian national instruments and the names of persons who play these instruments, 2) disunity of the pragmatic constituent of the analyzed lexemes, their connotations.

The exposition of the main material. V. Korolenko was born in Zhytomyr, lived in Ukraine for a long time, particularly in the cities such as Rivne and Poltava. His childhood the writer passed in Zhytomyr. He eagerly listened to the stories оf the old nurse about ancient times, enjoyed Ukrainian folk songs. The events of his childhood gave a material for many works, the particularity of his childhood reflected in a way the nature of his work. When he was a small child he spoke both Ukrainian and Polish. He loved Ukrainian tales and poems by T. Shevchenko.

A great originality and a difficult world and feelings of the writer are represented in every separate work. For example this you can find in "The blind musician". To understand what a strong echo in the writer's works has made life of the Ukrainian people, we should remember Iohim's image in "The blind musician". The personality of V. Korolenko's mother inspired to create an image of Evelin, a loving and selfless friend of the hero of the story "The blind musician". Since childhood the writer liked nature. The first significant childhood experiences – walking in the pine forest. Left alone with nature, the boy was listening to the sound of trees, a quiet whisper and breath of the forest. That memory was imprinted in the mind of the writer with such depth that after many years, as he told, it was the motive for his story "Wood murmurs."

Memories of the childhood and teenage years spent in Ukraine were always dear and close for him. Ukrainian themes and images were highly imprinted ("The blind musician", "Wood murmurs" "No tongue"). The writer sincerely respected the culture and life of the Ukrainians. V. Korolenko loved folk art, poetic songs, stories and legends. He listened to folk singers and kobza players. In 1906 he wrote "Duma" in which he depicted the in Sorochyntsi.

In 1886 he published his first book "Essays and stories", which received an admiring response of A. Chekhov. The real triumph had the next work – the story "The blind musician" (1886). In it V. Korolenko with great knowledge of human psychology, and philosophical approached to solving the eternal problems of man and society. Tracing the fate of the blind boy, he led the reader to believe that the natural vocation of man is not only a struggle for their own happiness. The completeness and harmony of life can be felt only being a part of people and to overcome feelings of selfishness. It is worth remembering the story of this period: "Wood murmurs" (1886).

Wherever he lived, he always wanted to return to Ukraine. He liked Ukraine for its spectacular beauty of nature, loved Ukrainian people for their hard work, melody, an irresistible thirst for freedom. Volodymyr Halaktionovych passionately defended the Ukrainian culture and language, strongly supported the progressive Ukrainian writers. A strong friendship was between him and Panas Myrniy, P. Hrabovskiy, M. Kotsyubynskiy. The subject of Ukraine occupies an important place in the stories "Wood murmurs", "In a bad company", "No tongue," the story "The blind musician" and the others.

The Ukrainisms of the Russian language belong to the artifacts – the names of the musical instruments, including bandore, kobza, lire. The same with the category of people who play these instruments – a bandore player, a kobza player, a lire player, who were usually blind. These lexical-semantic lexemes receive a special figurative and symbolic meaning in the stories by V. Korolenko "The blind musician" and "Wood murmurs" (Poliska legend).

Kobza, bandore and lire are symbols of the Ukrainian folk-lore, the Ukrainian history V. Korolenko emphasizes the function of a bandore player, a kobza player, a lire player and their role in life of the Ukrainian people. We can fill the singing of the Ukrainian romantic antiquity.: It was better for the blindmen. Instead of the piano then I would have learned to play the bandore, and would have gone to the cities and villages ... A crowd of people would have gathered, and I would have sung them about the affairs of their fathers, the exploits and fame. Then I would have been something in life. But now? [Короленко 1956: 160]. As you can see, primarily this context points out at the bandore player's role in the life of the Ukrainian society, their high authority (Then I would have been something in life). These were people who reported to the Ukrainian people the truth about historical facts, important facts about Ukrainian life. The "activity" of a real Ukrainian bandore player Opanas Shvydkiy (name exclusively of Ukrainian origin) made poetry in another writer's story – "Wood murmurs" (Poliska legend), compare: Hey, boy, you did not use to listen to the way Opanas Shvydkiy played , and you would not listen to. Bandore is a tricky thing, but in hands of a person it speaks well. Touch it with a hand, and it will tell you everything about: a dark forest murmurs in bad weather, the wind tolls on weeds in the empty steppe, the grass whispers on a high Cossack's grave. No, fellow, you will not listen to a real playing! All sorts of people come here now, they visited not only Polissiay, in Ukraine they were everywhere: in Chyhyryn, Poltava and Kyyiv and Cherkasy. They say that there are no bandore players, they are not heard at fairs and markets. Bandore is still hanging on the wall in my house. I was taught to play the bandore by Opanas, and nobody took my experience. When I die – so, perhaps, nowhere in the wide world bandore playing will be heard. That's it! [Короленко 1956: 81-82].

As we can see in these texts there are also other types of the Ukrainisms: lexical and grammatical – form of address – fellow. The onomastic Ukrainisms – the name Ukraine, Cyiyiyin, Poltava, Kyyiv, Cherkasy, the Ukrainisms-folklorism – a wide world (a wide world means a wide space), the lexical-semantic Ukrainisms – the names of traditional Ukrainian phenomena, events, reality (fair, house, Cossak's grave).

V. Korolenko emphasizes that an obligatory characteristics for a Ukrainian bandore player, a kobza player, a lire player is to be blind, and perhaps that physical defect activates other qualities, sensitivity and emotionality, compare: "He [Max] had forgotten that bayan playersand Ukrainian bandore players, kobza players were blind. It was true, that difficult life often forced to take lyre or bandore and ask for a pittance. But not all of them were just poor and artisans with a nasal voice, and not all of them have lost their vision only in their old age" [Короленко 1956: 122].

As we can see, some V. Korolenko's thoughts about bandore players are to be simplified. He said that all bandore players, kobza players, lyre players have already died. They exist nowadays, study in the universities, they are not blind travelers but professional musicians.

However, when V. Korolenko wrote his story bandore players, kobza players, lyre players were still in Ukraine (compare: they say, there are no bandore players… Hnat Khotkevych wrote that during the XIIth archaeological congress which was in Kharkiv in 1902), (1886-1898 is a period of time, when the "The blind musician" was published), he managed to publish an important statistics: there were bandore players, kobza players, lyre players from Kharkiv, Chernihiv and Poltava provinces. There were 25 people among the invited represented Chernihiv province. None of them considered himself the "last" because at home they left their followers [Хоткевич 1930: 140].

V. Korolenko stressed that such instruments as bandore, kobza and lyre are very important for the Ukrainian national culture. Unfortunately, sometimes they are identified by him and do not use an exact category for the specification of a musical instrument and gives a generalized description, compare: In the morning, at the very dawn, two blindmen gone. One of them turned a handle of a primitive tool: a wooden roller circled in the hole of the empty box and rubbed up against the taut strings, which made a sad and monotonous hum. A little bit nasal but a pleasant old voice was singing a morning prayer [Короленко 1956: 205].

The lexemes bandore, kobza, lyre and bandore players, kobza players,lyre players comprise the dictionary of Dahl with appropriate marks, compare:

BANDORE f. a musical instrument, very similar to the lute or balalaika, with a rounded body and the metal strings, a feather is used to play it, like to play the Turkish domra. | We (maloros.) call bandore for torban , which is much larger and bellyer, and play it with  fingers, as guitar. All system of bandore or torban is in one fret (chord), and there are a lot of strings, but not always the same quantity. Bandore player m., bandore player f., a person who plays bandore. Bandore players used to be in every house of Malorosiyai, Cossacks danced and sang accompanied by bandore. To bandore, to strum, to play an instrument for pleausure; wasting time [Даль 1978: 44].

As we see bandore has not only one derivative lexeme bandore player.m., but also modifies the name of a female person – a bandore player.f. However, at that time there were not so many women, who played the bandore. To bandore is a derivation. V. Dahl gave a negative connotation, because playing the bandore didn't mean to waste time. Evidently such meaning of the word was in Russian, but not in the Ukrainian language.

KOBZA f. south. a kind of bandore; a rounded balalaika with seven strings. There are eight strings, or four pairs of gnashing strings. A kobza player, a poor blind man singing about Ukrainian historical events [Даль 1978: 127].

LYRE f. a musical weapon of an old-world; now it is modified. The blindmen in Malorosiya and the poor in St. Petersgurg play it. In the dictionary there is less information about lyre, but there is a denotment that this instrument is appropriate only for Ukrainian culture.

The conclusions. The words bandore (bandore player), kobza (kobza player), lyre (lyre player) belong to the Ukrainianisms in Russian; there’s a certain specifics of their operation in the texts of a classic literature, including V. Korolenko. In his texts the pragmatics of using of these lexemes, their connotative meanings of individual authors associations are represented, and sometimes contain false information circulated in the discursive practice of using the Russian language of the early twentieth century. The above mentioned Ukrainianisms are fixed in the Dictionary of the Russian language by V. I. Dahl.

The texts written by V. Korolenko – a perfect illustration for the articles in the future dictionary of the Ukrainisms in the Russian language. It represents the perspective of a further investigation.

References. 

References

Даль 1978: Даль, В.И. Толковый словарь живого великорусского языка [Текст] / ВІДаль. – Москва : Русский язык, 1978. – Т. 1. – С. 44; Т. 2. – С. 127.

Дерман 1946: Дерман, А. Життя В. Г. Короленка [Текст] / А. Дерман. – Москва, Ленинград : Государственное издательство детской литературы Министерства образования РСФСР.

Короленко 1956: Короленко, В. Г. "Лес шумит" (Полесская легенда) : Сборник рассказов [Текст] / В. Г. Короленко. – М. : Художественная литература, 1956. – Т. 2. – С. 70-120.

Короленко 1956: Короленко, В.Г "Слепой музыкант" : Сборник рассказов [Текст] / В. Г. Короленко. – М. : Художественная литература, 1956. – Т. 2. – С. 122-170.

Космеда 2000: Космеда, Т. Аксіологічні аспекти прагмалінгвістики : формування і розвиток категорії оцінки [Текст] / Т. Космеда. – Львів : ЛНУ ім. І. Франка, 2000. – 350 с.

Крисін 1968: Крисін, Л.П. Іншомовне слово в сучасній російській мові [Текст] / Л. П. Крисін. – М. : Наука, 1968.

Труханенко 2006: Труханенко, А.В. Основи поетики В.Г. Короленко [Текст] / А. В. Труханенко. – Львів : Видавничий дім "Спол", 2006. – С. 126.

Хоткевич 1930: Хоткевич, Г. Музичні інструменти українського народу [Текст] / Г. Хоткевич. – Харків, 1930. – С. 180.

 

У статті проаналізовано особливості функціонування лексико-семантичних українізмів, що позначають назви українських національних інструментів та номінують назви осіб, які володіють грою на цих інструментах. Крім семантики, виокремлено прагматичну складову розглянутих лексем, їх конотації. Проаналізований матеріал слугуватиме для репрезентації виокремлених номінацій в словнику українізмів російської мови.

Ключові слова: лексико-семантичні українізми, прагматична складова, конотація, словник українізмів.

Available 2 December 2014.