Genetic Peculiarities of Borrowed Language Elements on Modern Study of Ukrainian Literature (on the Material of Idiostyles of Yu. Andrukhovich, I. Karpa, I. Rozdobudko, O. Zabuzhko)

 © The Editorial Council and Editorial Board of Linguistic Studies

Linguistic Studies
Volume 32, 2016, pp.  42-45

Genetic Peculiarities of Borrowed Language Elements on Modern Study of Ukrainian Literature (on the Material of Idiostyles of Yu. Andrukhovich, I. Karpa, I. Rozdobudko, O. Zabuzhko)

Borodenko Lyudmila

Article first published online: December 26, 2016 


Additional information

 Author Information: 

Borodenko Lyudmila is a Candidate of Philology, Assistant, Department of Ukrainian Language and Slavonic Philology of the State Higher Educational Institution “Pryazovskyi State Technical University”. Correspondence: ludborodenko@rambler.ru

Citation: 
Borodenko, L. Genetic Peculiarities of Borrowed Language Elements on Modern Study of Ukrainian Literature (on the Material of Idiostyles of Yu. Andrukhovich, I. Karpa, I. Rozdobudko, O. Zabuzhko) [Text] // Linhvistychni Studiyi / Linguistic Studies : collection of scientific papers / 
Vasyl' Stus Donetsk  National  University; Ed. by Anatoliy Zahnitko. – Vinnytsia : Vasyl' Stus DonNU, 2016. – Vol. 32. – Pp. 42-45. – ISBN 966-7277-88-7

Publication History:
Volume first published online: 
December 26, 2016

Article received: September 13, 2016, accepted: October 18, 2016 and first published online: December 26, 2016

Annotation.

The present-day state of language confirms such borrowed vocabulary elements, that not entirely correspond to previously analyzed terms as “foreign impregnations”, “barbarisms” or “graphical barbarisms”. New language elements no longer fulfill the function of language saving, but largely the reverse function, extending sense, grammar and as a matter of fact text horizons. Consequently, nowadays there is the need of defining more exactly the term “borrowing”. The term “graphic-spelling borrowings” was suggested and introduced into this with the objective of designating not adapted foreign impregnations in the structure of belle-letter texts.

Keywords: graphic and spelling foreign borrowings, structural types, Latin origin, English origin, German origin, French origin.



Abstract.

GENETIC PECULIARITIES OF BORROWED LANGUAGE ELEMENTS ON MODERN STUDY OF UKRAINIAN LITERATURE (ON THE MATERIAL OF IDIOSTYLES OF Y. ANDRUKHOVICH, I. KARPA, I. ROZDOBUDKO, O. ZABUZHKO)

Lyudmila Borodenko

Department of Ukrainian Language and Slavonic Philology of the State Higher Educational Institution “Pryazovskyi State Technical University”, Mariupol, Ukraine

Abstract

Background: The present-day state of language confirms such borrowed vocabulary elements, that not entirely correspond to previously analyzed terms as “foreign impregnations”, “barbarisms” or “graphical barbarisms”. New language elements no longer fulfill the function of language saving, but largely the reverse function, extending sense, grammar and as a matter of fact text horizons. Consequently, nowadays there is the need of defining more exactly the term “borrowing”. The term “graphic-spelling borrowings” was suggested and introduced into this with the objective of designating not adapted foreign impregnations in the structure of belle-letter texts.

Purpose: The objective of the work is to discover the genetic peculiarities of “graphic-spelling borrowings” within the structure of modern Ukrainian belle-letter text.

Result: Classification of graphic-spelling borrowings according to their source presumes the material structuring according to the source of the origin. In the structure of belle-letter text of the post-Soviet period the priority is given to the English language (81%). Then, according to their percentage the graphic-spelling borrowings come in the following sequence: graphic-spelling borrowings from German (8%), graphic-spelling borrowings from French (7%), graphic-spelling borrowings from Latin (2%). Borrowings from other languages are estimated to be 2%. The plurality of languages testifies close links between the Ukrainian language and culture with the entire world culture.

Discussion: The fact that graphic-spelling borrowings are mainly not translated into Ukrainian is a peculiarity of the structure of belle-letter texts of the post-Soviet period. It can be explained by the fact that contemporary Ukrainian literature, as progressive European literature is intended for educated and intellectual readers, who are able of adequate perception of graphic-spelling borrowings. Prospective research appears to the genetic specificity of graphic-spelling borrowings of Italian, Spanish and other languages.

Key words: graphic and spelling foreign borrowings, structural types, Latin origin, English origin, German origin, French origin.

 

Vitae

Borodenko Lyudmila is a Candidate of Philology, Assistant, Department of Ukrainian Language and Slavonic Philology of the State Higher Educational Institution “Pryazovskyi State Technical University”. Her areas of research interests embrace linguistic typology, study of the problems of the national Ukrainian bilingualism and foreign language study in a bilingual community.

Correspondence: ludborodenko@rambler.ru


Article.

Lyudmila Borodenko

УДК 81'374:378.147

GENETIC PECULIARITIES OF BORROWED LANGUAGE ELEMENTS

ON MODERN STUDY OF UKRAINIAN LITERATURE

(ON THE MATERIAL OF IDIOSTYLES OF Y. ANDRUKHOVICH,

I. KARPA, I. ROZDOBUDKO, O. ZABUZHKO)

 

У статті виявлено генетичну специфіку графічно-орфографічних іншомовностей у структурі сучасного українського тексту. Графічно-орфографічні іншомовності позиціоновано як літери, лексеми, словосполучення, речення, запозичені з інших мов зі збереженням графіки мови-джерела, тобто мовні елементи абсолютно не адаптовані до фонетичної та граматичної системи української мови. Схарактеризовано походження графічно-орфографічних іншомовностейіз послідовним виокремленням латинізмів, англіцизмів, германізмів, франкізмів, італізмів, полонізмів у творах українських письменників пострадянського періоду.

Ключові слова: графічно-орфографічні іншомовності, структурні типи, латинське походження, англійське походження, німецьке походження, французьке походження.

 

Development of the fundamentals of the theory of borrowings was intensely carried out throughout the XIX century and the first part of XX century (see the referencesІ. Vord, D. Jones, M. Kоchеrgаn, L. Krysіn, А. Smith, Е. Haugen, М. Shanskiy, О. Shakhmatov). In the works of that period attention was paid to the language inter-communication between nations, it allows to discover the regularities that guide development of the language vocabulary, and interprete the phenomena occuring there determine the links between history of separate words, history of the language and history of the nation. In linguistics of the second half of the previous century borrowings were considered as transportation of words and separate elements from one language into another (see the references). The end of XX century and the beginning of XXI century are characterized, by the linguists as the époque of language instability (see the references). Researchers point out that live broadcastings on the radio and TV testify the facts of violations of the language standards and reveal the presence of substantial quantity of borrowed vocabulary.     

The present-day state of language confirms such borrowed vocabulary elements, that not entirely correspond to previously analyzed terms as “foreign impregnations”, “barbarisms” or “graphical barbarisms”. New language elements no longer fulfill the function of language saving, but largely the reverse function, extending sense, grammar and as a matter of fact text horizons. Consequently, nowadays there is the need of defining more exactly the term “borrowing”. The term “graphic-spelling borrowings” was suggested and introduced into this with the objective of designating not adapted foreign impregnations in the structure of belle-letter texts. Under “graphic-spelling borrowings” we understand letters, lexemes, word combinations, sentences, borrowings from other languages with preservation of the graphic of the source language (Borodenko 117), as well as language elements, that are completely not adapted to phonetic and grammar system of the Ukrainian language. The domain of their active functioning is the works of Ukrainian prose of the post-Soviet period.

The objective of the work is to discover the genetic peculiarities of “graphic-spelling borrowings” within the structure of modern Ukrainian belle-lettertext. The following main tasks are specified for fulfillment of that objective:  1) to find out the “graphic-spelling borrowings” by the way of thorough investigation of the works of prominent contemporary Ukrainian writers (Y. Andrukhovich, I. Karpa, O. Zabuzhko, I. Rozdobudko, L. Deresh et al.), 2) to characterize main peculiarities of genetic types of “graphic-spelling borrowings” in the author’s styles of personal styles of Y. Andrukhovich, I. Karpa, O. Zabuzhko, I. Rozdobudko, L. Deresh. The identity of the author’s style of a belle-letter text is revealed in the presence of a specific set of author’s stylistic devices and is characterized by the presence of a certain principle of selection and combining of various language means and their transformation within the framework of the concept, suggested by the author. An individual author’s style of a written language presumes verbal form of expressing language means and their grammar and lexical significance to which the author gives his / her preference. Investigating an individual author’s stylistics is investigating the author’s choice of language means, concept, its realization and implementation in the text. The collected actual material showed that “graphic-spelling borrowings” played a substantial part in formation of individual style of the Ukrainian writers of the post-Soviet period. The following genetic types of “graphic-spelling borrowings” were revealed in the work: Latinisms, Briticisms, Germanisms, Frankisms, Italisms, Polonisms.

1. Graphic-spelling borrowings” of Latin origin. Graphic-spelling borrowings of Latin origin show a variety of structural types: – Тобі сьогодні на скільки? – запитала Віра так, нібито пересунула першого пішака в шаховій партії з Е-2 на клітинку Е-4 (Rozdobudko Iren Ya znayu, scho ti znaesh, scho ya znayu…”); Тоді я беру вільну руку, кладу їй долоню на голову, закочую очі і починаю читати Gaudeamus” (Karpa Irena “Bitches get everything); Його роль, спочатку колишня роль поганого хлопця, такого собі симпатичного відчайдуха (NB – багатьма таємно улюбленого) (Andrukhovich Yuriy Dvanadtsat obruchiv”); Чого вже явно не скажеш про невротичних совкових і пост совкових homosapiens (Karpa Irena “Bitches get everything); До певного дня він намагався силою подавити власне розчарування і знайти який-небудь оптимальний modus vivendi у відношеннях з цим неминучим злом (Andrukhovich Yuriy Dvanadtsat obruchiv”); Перекладений і оригінальний Мірча Еліаде, Тотем і табу Фройда,  Mysterium Coniunctionis Юнга і ще сила-силенна всього (Karpa Irena «Pizza Gimalai”); Чомусь спадає на думку Liberte, egalite, fraternite!!!! (Karpa Irena Perlamutrove porno (supermarket samotnosti)”).

2. “Graphic-spelling borrowings” of English origin. The authors use English words and expression the most often. We believe it is due to popularity of Pop-art, that originated as a reaction to abstract expressionism and where characters of consumption products were used. According to J. Baudrillard, consumers’ logics is devoid of symbolic relations of interval character, it being entirely oriented on the external (Baudrillard 211). An object loses its function, it becomes a part of much wider combinatory. It is worth mentioning that Pop-art belongs to American art, it depicts the logics of economic development, development of industry and marketing. American artists rehabilitate the world of banal beauty, in their works one can feel pride, because of the fact that American trade system managed to find high quality goods, which are ever cheap and available to everybody. Their art is to some extent a monument to such goods. The Russian society, which was barred from the rest of the world by the “iron curtain” secretly admired the American consumption culture and we may say envied the US citizens. Under such conditions the tendency of criticizing of globalization and critical evaluation of any policy of the USA sprang up and what admired the Soviet people in the sixties, makes contemporary Ukrainian writers smile sardonically. So, the misuse of English expressions is not of a random origin.

It is interesting to analyze the device used in the studied works: the application of the English language for description of a state of alcoholic intoxication. Мені хотілося сказати йому щось приємне. Подякувати за сеанс абощо. Але ноги мої затерпли, і тому я лише вигукнув, зіскакуючи долі: − See you later, alligator! − маючи на увазі чи то Марка, чи то Замзу. – After while, crocodile! − прочулося у відповідь невиразне плямкання (Andrukhovich YuriyDvanadtsat obruchiv); Вистачало рішуче стартувати пополудні (два по сто, томатний сік, що-небудь), набрати справжнього розмаху ввечері (oh show me the way to the next whisky bar) у моїй книзі – (moon light and vodka, take me away) (Andrukhovich YuriyDvanadtsat obruchiv).

Graphic-spelling borrowings of English origin represent different structural and subject types, e.g.: Номер рейсу VV 3482. Сьогодні (Karpa Irena “Pizza ‘Gimalai’”); Виготовлено of country of New Castle,USA (Karpa Irena “Froyd bi plakav”)А тепер йдемо грати в «BlackJack» (Karpa Irena “Froyd bi plakav”); Віддай порожню тому бомжарі з написом «Army of Lovers» на куртці (Andrukhovich Yuriy “Taemnitsya”); І Марла не стала розповідати цьому британському police man нічого (Karpa Irena “Froyd bi plakav”); Витягаю телефон і знаходжу в нього запис apartments (Karpa Irena “Perlamutrove porno (supermarket samotnosti)”); Програма їхнього життя працює в режимі middle: важіль чи кнопка, зафіксована між on і off, як у телефоні (Rozdobudko Iren “12 abo vihovannya zhinki v umovah nepridatnih do zhittya”); Yes! – задоволено видихнула Марина (Rozdobudko Iren “Eskort u smert”); Марла нарешті підібрала з підлоги своє знеславлене military (Karpa Irena “Froyd bi plakav”); А я ж таки читала його типу fantasy книжечку (Karpa Irena “50 hvilin travi”)Але мій beloved Shrink нічого не скаже, бо цю історію я йому не розповім (Karpa Irena “Bitches get everything”); Судорожно вилупившись в безрозмірну (fit sallages!) позицію sexy lady (Zabuzko Oksana “Polovi doslidzhennya ukrayinskogo seksu”); Думками ви вже поставили діагноз: severe psychological problems з обох сторін (Zabuzko Oksana “Polovi doslidzhennya ukrayinskogo seksu”); Big brother уже ледь не тріскає від почуття власної (Karpa Irena “Perlamutrove porno (supermarket samotnosti)”); Game over, game over? Маленький хлопчик бреде глибочезними сніговими заметами (Karpa Irena “Froyd bi plakav”)Він просто каже до скандинавської квітки: And if we are to die to night, another rose will bloom… (Karpa Irena “50 hvilin travi”). Було заплановано злітати до вчорашньої країни Northland. I love you, I love you, I love you, What's your name? (Karpa Irena “50 hvilin travi”); Tea with milk, good whisky (letit be Glenmorangie, it's stile not bad) and Finnish bread…That what I call a dream. Plust wo guys work in gin my kitchen(Karpa Irena “50 hvilin travi”); Hey man! How is it going? Will you have some coffee with me? I know nothing about this place so I need some body t ogive me a bit of explanations… – ну звісно ж, вона не знала нічого ані про це місто, ані про Маркіяна (Karpa Irena “50 hvilin travi”); You're so fucking special, I wish I were special… Але ж як ти все далеко… What the well am I going here, I don’t belong here (Karpa Irena “50 hvilin travi”), etc.

3. “Graphic-spelling borrowings” of German origin. Borrowings from German play the following parts: 1) characterizing the character, with the objective of pointing out his / her German origin(German phrases typical of Karl-Josef (Andrukhovich Yuriy “Dvanadtsat obruchiv”) and Risenbok (Andrukhovich YuriyPerverzija”); 2) appeal to the concepts fixed in the minds of Ukrainians (Kirsche, Kinder, Küche, Дас іст фантастіш, mein Furier, ja-ja, ja wohl), cf.: Що набував рожевого відсвіту Alpen Glühen (Karpa Irena “Froyd bi plakav”); Старий баронський маєток на пагорбі – такий собі Schlöbchen (Andrukhovich Yuriy “Dvanadtsat obruchiv”);  Доволі таки впевнена в собі і від того невимовно сексуальна, з ще мокрими після ванни волосами пані Рома заодно виконувала свою роботу перекладача, будь-який раз повідомляючи для Цумбруннена “Wurst”, або “Käse!”, або “Frühlingssalat!” – ніби їх сам він не бачив (Andrukhovich Yuriy “Dvanadtsat obruchiv”) тощо.

4. “Graphic-spelling borrowings” of French origin. Graphic-spelling borrowings of French origin do not exceed 7% value and perform the functions already defined, chiefly describing character’s knowledge of French and depicting realities of the French life. (cf., Якесь нетутешнє dé ja vu, якщо таке може бути (Karpa Irena “Bitches get everything”); Або jama is vu, тобто, чергове in oui, sans présédent(Karpa Irena “Bitches get everything”); Вирішив пити “Grandmarnier”, – як найостанніший сноб, а ще купив і синій “Gauloises” (Rozdobudko Iren “Vin: Rankovij pribiralnik”); Я займалася якраз перечитуванням Лесі Українки (моя давно обіцяна читачам книжка про неї, “Nôtre Dame d'Ukraine: Українка в конфлікті міфологій”, вийшла б друком ще до кінця цього року, якби не вибори) (Zabuzko Oksana “Let my people go”); Сам raison d'etre літератури полягає в її здатності задовольняти цю найглибиннішу, екзестенційну людську потребу (Zabuzko Oksana “Let my people go”); Vous êt es Française? – дівчинка дивилася Марлі просто в очі (Karpa Irena “Froyd bi plakav”)На певний час цього вистачає. A la pro chaine, machoute(Karpa Irena “Bitches get everything”); Назвав мене, скатіна, o dieu seet prétentie use (Karpa Irena “Bitches get everything”); Sous prétext ede.  Пишеш=бачиш (Karpa Irena “Bitches get everything”); Sous Prétex tede Sexe. Enfant Terrib levs Femme Fatale. Ну от, він жер, аж давився, а я давлюся вибором  між оцими двома назвами майбутнього вікна (Karpa Irena “Bitches get everything”); Let empsderéve, c'estfini…. – співає з динаміка давно померла Даліда (Karpa Irena “Bitches get everything”).

5. “Graphic-spelling borrowings” of other language origin. By means of Graphic-spelling borrowing so Italian origin, the writers appeal to the classics of the world literature, particularly to Dante’s “Divine Comedy”. І навіть не звернув увагу на інші двері з написом LASCIATE OGNI ESPERANZA (Andrukhovich Yuriy “Dvanadtsat obruchiv”)The Italian language is used by Y. Andrukhovich for depicting the country’s colourin his “Perversion”: frutti di mare, tortellino, capito, grazie, Festa della Madonna de lla Salute. Exotic foreign words mainly preserve their native spelling but sometimes may be transliterated: дзукубаруку, бардоліно, Капі дель Консильйо деї Д’єці. The writer also resorts to “spaghetti” language –distortion of words in foreign manner, for instance: П’єтро Моґільяні, Джованні Мазеппа, омлето венеціяно, спаґетті наполітано, котлето больоньєзе. This device was first used in the Ukrainian literature by I. Kotlyarevskiy in his “Eneida”. “Perversion” by Yu. Andrukhovych full of allusions and references to “Eneida”, application of spaghetti language is a sign of intellectual character of the book. Also found were some graphic-spelling borrowings of Polish origin (Polonisms): А українська телевізія такого круглого столу так досі й не провела…, розгорнула в літаку “Gazetu Wyborczu” і вгледіла цілий розворот, присвячений родині покійного Аліка Асланова (Zabuzko Oksana “Let my people go”); На проспекті Паши Ангеліної марширували браві бригади якихось голених під нульку козлів, що мото ревіли: Gdzie są szatani? Hej kurva, gdzie są szatani? (Deresh Lubko “Kult”) тощо.

Classification of graphic-spelling borrowings according to their source presumes the material structuring according to the source of the origin. In the structure of belle-letter text of the post-Soviet period the priority is given to the English language (81%). Then, according to their percentage the graphic-spelling borrowings come in the following sequence: graphic-spelling borrowings from German (8%), graphic-spelling borrowings from French (7%), graphic-spelling borrowings from Latin (2%). Borrowings from other languages are estimated to be 2%. The plurality of languages testifies close links between the Ukrainian language and culture with the entire world culture.

The fact that graphic-spelling borrowings are mainly not translated into Ukrainian is a peculiarity of the structure of belle-letter texts of the post-Soviet period. It can be explained by the fact that contemporary Ukrainian literature, as progressive European literature is intended for educated and intelligent readers, who are able of adequate perception of graphic-spelling borrowings.

References. 

Andrews, West. History of Scientific English. New York, 1947. Print.

Bodriyar, Zhan. Obschestvo Potrebleniya. Ego Mify i Struktury (Consumer Society. Its Myths and Structures). Respublika: Kulturnaya revolyutsiya, 2006. 28-44. Print.

Borodenko, Lyudmila. “Problema Zapozichen u Suchasniy UkrayinskIy Movi (The Problem of Borrowings in the Modern Ukrainian Language)”. Linhvistychni Studiyi (Linguistic Studies) 19 (2009): 115–119.Print.

Borodenko, Lyudmila. “Strukturni Typy Grafichno-Orfografichnih Inshomovnostey-Anglitsizmiv (na Materiali Tvoriv Suchasnyh Pysmennykiv) (Structural Types of Graphic and Spelling Foreign Language of Anglicisms (Based on the Works of Contemporary Writers))”. Linhvistychni Studiyi (Linguistic Studies) 22 (2008): 6–14. Print.

Haugen, Einar. “The Analysis of Linguistic Borrowing”. Language 26(1950): 210–232. Print.

Kochergan, Mykhaylo. Zagalne Movoznavstvo (General Linguistics). Kyiv: Akademiya, 1999. Print.

Lyons, John. Structural Semantics. Oxford, 1963. Print.

Shanskiy, Nikolay. Leksikologiya Sovremennogo Russkogo Yazyika (Lexicology of the Modern Russian Language). Мoscow, 1972. Print.

 

List of Sources

Andrukhovych, Yuriy. Dvanadtsat Obruchiv (Twelve Hoops). Kharkiv: Knizhkoviy klub, 2008. Print.

Andrukhovych, Yuriy. Perverzija (Perversion). Lviv: VNTL-Classika, 2004. Print.

Andrukhovych, Yuriy. Taemnitsya (Secret). Kharkiv: Folio, 2007. Print.

Deresh, Lubko. Kult (Cult). Kharkiv: Folio, 2009. Print.

Karpa, Irena. 50 hvilin travi (50 Minutes of Weed). Kharkiv: Folio, 2006. Print.

Karpa, Irena. Perlamutrove Porno (Supermarket Samotnosti) (Pearlescent Porno (Supermarket of Loneliness)). Kyiv: PP Dulibi. Print.

Karpa, Irena. Pizza “Gimalai” (Pizza “Himalayas”). Kharkiv: Knizhkoviy klub, 2011. Print.

Karpa, Irena. Froyd bi Plakav (Freud Would Cry). Kharkiv: Folio, 2006. Print.

Karpa, Irena. Bitches Get Everything. Kharkiv: Knizhkoviy klub, 2007. Print.

Rozdobudko, Iren. Vin: Rankovij Prybyralnyk (He: Morning Cleaner). Kyiv: Nora-Druk, 2007. Print.

Rozdobudko, Iren. 12 abo Vihovannya Zhinki v Umovah Nepridatnih do Zhittya (12 or Nurturing of Woman in the Conditions Unfit for Life). Kharkiv: Folio, 2008. Print.

Rozdobudko, Iren. Eskort u Smert (Escort in Death). Kharkiv: Folio, 2007. Print.

Rozdobudko, Iren. Ya Znayu, scho Ty Znaesh, scho Ya Znayu... (I know, that You Know, that I Know). Kharkiv: Folio, 2013. Print.

Zabuzko, Oksana. Polyovi Doslidzhennya Ukrayinskogo Seksu (Field Research of Ukrainian Sex). Moscow: AST: Vostok-Zapad. Print.

Zabuzhko, Oksana. Let my People Go. Kyiv: Fact, 2006. Print.

Надійшла до редакції 13 вересня 2016 року.