Borrowings of Religious Domain in the Lexical System of Polish

 © The Editorial Council and Editorial Board of Linguistic Studies

Linguistic Studies
Volume 34, 2017, pp.  61-64

Borrowings of Religious Domain in the Lexical System of Polish

Вorodenko Lyudmila

Article first published online: December 20, 2017 


Additional information

 Author Information: 

Вorodenko Lyudmila, candidate of philological sciences, assistant, Department of Ukrainian language and Slavonic Philology of the State higher educational institution "Pryazovskyi state technical University". Correspondence: lusi11271@gmail.com

Citation: 
Вorodenko, L. Borrowings of Religious Domain in the Lexical System of Polish // Linhvistychni Studiyi / Linguistic Studies : collection of scientific papers / Donetsk National University; Ed. by Anatoliy Zahnitko. Vinnytsia : Vasyl' Stus DonNU, 2017. Vol. 34. Pp. 61-64. ISBN 966-7277-88-7

Publication History:

Volume first published online: December 20, 2017
Article received: September 7, 2017, accepted: November 30, 2017 and first published online: December 20, 2017

Annotation.

Статтю присвячено аналізу запозичених релігійних термінів у польській мові. Проаналізовані лексико-семантичні групи запозичень з релігійної сфери у польській мові, визначено їх семантичні особливості. Запозичення з релігійної сфери у польській мові являють собою різноманітний, багатий, живий і рухливий матеріал.

Keywords: borrowings, religious sphere, person’s names, names of divine services, institutions and establishments.



Abstract.

BORROWINGS OF RELIGIOUS DOMAIN IN THE LEXICAL SYSTEM OF POLISH

Lyudmila Borodenko

Department of Ukrainian language and Slavonic Philology of the State higher educational institution "Pryazovskyi state technical University", Mariupol, Ukraine

Abstract

Background: The problems of inter-language contacts in contemporary Polish linguistics have increasingly been put forward into the line of most actual linguistic problems, both for mastering particular language material and solving a set of certain theoretical problems. A special attention should  be paid to the problem of borrowings from other languages in Polish-one of the most actual problems in Polish linguistics.

Purpose: The objective of the article lies in uncovering of religious borrowings, existing in Polish, revealing their lexical and semantic characteristics and performing lexical and semantic analysis of religious borrowings in Polish.  

Result: The biggest group of borrowings from classical languages (Greek and Latin) comprise personal names –members of orders, clergymen, and people close to it. Words, connected with Orthodox religion, that had been penetrating for a long period of time. Among borrowings from other languages there are borrowings from Arabic, Italian, German, Hebrew, French, Persian, Turkish, Hindi Sanskrit.. Because previously direct contacts with persons of the above-mentioned nations were naturally restricted the number of borrowings from those countries in Polish is quite small.

Discussion: So, borrowing is one of the most important components of the vocabulary of the Polish language, the largest lexical and semantic group, existing in all distant genetic layers of religious borrowings being the group of “persons nominating”. Having been adapted in the language the borrowings enlarge and enrich its vocabulary arsenal. Subsequent comprehensive etymological analysis by means of the method of inner and outer reconstruction, as well as detailed prognostication of stylistic possibilities of borrowed vocabulary in contemporary Polish seem to have some good prospects.

Key words: borrowings, religious sphere, person’s names, names of divine services, institutions and establishments.

Vitae

Borodenko Lyudmila, candidate of philological sciences, assistant, Department of Ukrainian language and Slavonic Philology of the State higher educational institution "Pryazovskyi state technical University", research interests linguistic typology, study of the problems the national Ukrainian bilingualism and foreign language study in a bilingual.

Correspondence: lusi11271@gmail.com.


Article.

Людмила Бороденко

УДК 81'374:378.147                                                                                                                                      

BORROWINGS OF RELIGIOUS DOMAIN IN THE LEXICAL SYSTEM OF POLISH

 

Статтю присвячено аналізу запозичених релігійних термінів у польській мові. Проаналізовані лексико-семантичні групи запозичень з релігійної сфери у польській мові, визначено їх семантичні особливості. Запозичення з релігійної сфери у польській мові являють собою різноманітний, багатий, живий і рухливий матеріал.

Ключові слова: запозичення, релігійна сфера, найменування особи, назви богослужінь, установи та інституції.

 

The problems of inter-language contacts in contemporary Polish linguistics have increasingly been put forward into the line of most actual linguistic problems, both for mastering particular language material and solving a set of certain theoretical problems. A special attention should  be paid to the problem of borrowings from other languages in Polish-one of the most actual problems in Polish linguistics.

The problem of theoretical comprehension of the processes of borrowing in the Polish language was the subject of research for many Polish scholars: A. Bruckner, T. Ler-Splavinskiy, A. Melnychuk, V. Pinkovsky et al. In their works the scholars turned to a set of problems The scholars addressed in their works to a series of problems connected with borrowings in the polish language. Particularly, they analyzed new branches and sources of borrowing, paying enough attention to the problem of division of borrowings with regard to their assimilation.

The objective of the article lies in uncovering of religious borrowings, existing in Polish, revealing their lexical and semantic characteristics and performing lexical and semantic analysis of religious borrowings in Polish.  

The novelty of the article is in attempt to carry out a complex description pf lexical borrowings of religious sphere in Polish, particularly their lexical and semantic typology.

The vocabulary of the Polish language is enriched not only owing to basic vocabulary of congeneric Slavonic languages, but also due to the words, borrowed from other non-Slavonic languages. Words and expressions of alien origin and, hence, morphemes entered the system of Polish vocabulary due to economic, political and cultural contacts between Polish and other people. Early borrowings penetrated mostly in oral way, later borrowings were assimilated by means of oral communication and also through literary sources, both directly and through the mediation of other languages.

1.  Adoption of Christianity of western type had a great influence upon history of Polish culture and language. Latin began to reign in Church and at school and playing a major part as  written language and “the upper crust”.  The biggest group of borrowings from classical languages (Greek 34,6 % and Latin 45,3 %) comprise personal names –members of orders, clergymen, and people close to it. The following subgroups can be singled out among these borrowings:

hierarchy of Christian church:

adwentyści (łac. adventus – przyjście – Adventists ) religious Christian denomination, in its dogmas the doctrine of the second coming of Jesus Christ for Judgement day for all dead or alive playing major role;

kolita (gr. akólouthos – osoba towarzysząca – psalm reader) – a church minister of Orthodox cathedral, who is responsible for correct singing and reading and also adjusts the order of divine service to wishes and requirements of the pastor;

antypapież (anty – łac. antae + papież – anti-Pope) – the term for naming a person, who unlawfully gained the status of Pope in catholic church;

biskup (gr. epίskopos – nadzorca – bishop) – in Orthodox, Catholic and Anglican church the highest clerical rank pf the head of religious administrative and regional unit;

diakon (gr. Diákonos – deacon) – a person, who comes to public divine service as the lowest clerical rank;

igumen (gr. hēgoumenos – prowadzący – Superior abbot) – Orthodox clerical rank, a person, who heads Orthodox monastery; 

prefekt (łac. praefectus – zwierzchnik – commander) –in catholic church a cardinal, who presides at certain meetings of the Holy altar, an assistant to the head of church seminar;

anioł (gr. ángelos – posłaniec – angel) – in Christian, Moslem  and Judaism religions a supernatural creature, a mediator between God and people, executor of God’s will;

archanioł (gr. Archángelos – messenger) – a senior angel Christian science;

patron (łac. patronus – obrońca, opiekun –a guardian) – a saint in Catholic religion, divine creature in heathen religion, these people exert educational influence, upon other persons.

Borrowings, related to public divine services and liturgy-masses, ceremonies, rites, the words that are used for denoting various acts and processes:

ablucja (p.-łac. ablutio – obmucie – literally washing up)  – a symbolic ceremony of washing up some human body parts and also cultural objects;

adwent (łac. adventus – przyjście – advent ) – in Roman-Catholic a period of four weeks, preceding Christmas holidays;

depozycja (łac. Depositio – literally deposition) – church punishment, when pastor is freed from his authorities and the right to act a clergyman ;

komunia (łac. communio – uczestnictwo, communication) – a Christian act of receiving and treating of guests;

lekcja (łac.-lectio – czytanie – reading) – a fragment to be read or sung at divine service before the Gospel or at praying;

msza (śrdw.-łac. Missia – mass) – in catholic church it is the main service, at which, according to catholic dogma the process of crucifixion (or sacrifice) of  Jesus Christ is repeated;

suplikacje (lac. supplicatio – publiczne modły – Te Deum, public prayer) – in Catholic church religious songs for appraisal;

wotywa (łac. votiva – ślubowanie – oath) – in Catholic church it is a mass, that is carried out according to special regulations, irrespective of official church calendar.  

Words for denoting religious notions:

adoracja (łac. Adoratio – worship) – worship of God or objects of religious culture;

celibat (łac. caelibatus – bezżeństwo – celibacy) – a prohibition to marry in some religions;

charyzmat (gr. chárisma – dar – gift) – a special gift of Divine gracea type of religious intention to separate human beings from environment.;

predestynacja (łac. praedestinatio – predetermination) – in several religions a conviction that human destiny after death (his/her salvation or damnationis predetermined , according to God’s will;   

stygmat (gr. stígma – punkt, piętno – a sign) – a wound that appears on bodies of some people because of tortures that0 Jesus Christ suffered;   

taumaturgia (gr. thaumatourgía – wonders) – that are attributed to acts of some saints, prophets and kings in some religions.

Words, that denote names of religious institutions:

diakonat (z gr. diákonos – diakon – deacons office) – in Evangelical church a charity organization, that depends upon deacon;

diecezja (gr. dioikesis – zarządzanie domem – eparchy) – an administrative church unit, under bishop’s guidance;

inkwizycja (łac. inquisitio – inquisition) – judicial and investigating organization, created by Catholic church in XIII century for investigation of heredy;

synagoga (gr. synagōgē – zabranie, zgromadzenie – collection) – Hebrew house of prayer or premises where Hebrew people pray

2. Words, connected with Orthodox religion, that had been penetrating for a long period of time. Among borrowings from Russian (8,6 %) that are mentioned  «Słowniku wyrazów obcych» we have some words that nominate church institutions:

ławra (ros. z gr. laura – ulica, klasztor – lavra ) – Orthodox monastery;

name of persons:

raskolnicy (ros. raskolnik, od raskoł – rozłam – dissident, splitter ) – a member of one of sects, belonging to religious split, an Old Believer

Nomination of things:

komża (czes. komže, ze śrdw.-łac. camisia – koszula – an alb) – a long garment with wide  sleeves  that deacons wear, usually sewn from brocade, to be worn at public divine services;

puszka (czes.puška, z niem. Büchse) – a cup) – a cup with golden surface deposition, equipped with a cover for keeping messages;

kapłan (czes. kaplan, ze śrdw.-łac. Capellanus – preacher) – a term, used in the majority of Christian churches and the title of rank of a clergyman, consecrated for executing sacramental acts and religious attendance of the believers;

mnich (czes., z gr. monachós – samotnie żyjący – a monk) – usually a person of religious circle, who, according to his oath (promise) leads an ascetic way of life either alone, or within  monastery circle.

The number of borrowings from Slavonic languages ids relatively small, it proving deep specific character and mutual impenetrability of two great religious confessions.

3. Among borrowings from other languages there are borrowings from Arabic, Italian, German, Hebrew, French, Persian, Turkish, Hindi Sanskrit (11,5 %). Because previously direct contacts with persons of the above-mentioned nations were naturally restricted the number of borrowings from those countries in Polish is quite small. Borrowings from other languages that function in Polish nowadays can be divided into the following groups: 

borrowings, denoting persons:

chasyd (hebr. chāsíd – righteous) – a person, who sticks to religious dogmas;

cherubin, cherub (hebr. Kerūb – cherub)  – in the Bible a supernatural creature , having six wings, with eyes all over its body, in Christian science an angel of the highest rank;

guru (sanskr. dosł. Nauczyciel, mistrz – guru) – in Hinduism, Sikhism and also in Buddhism and new religious trends a spiritual monitor, a teacher;

hadzi (ar. Hadżdż – pielgrzymka – pilgrimage) – the process, when faithful people travel to sacred places (e.g. Christians travel to Jerusalem, or Moslems to Mecca and Medina); marabout, z ar. murābit – zakonnik, pustelnik –hermit) – a person, who leads ascetic way of life due to his religious convictions and settles down in some secluded place;

borrowings connected with conduction of divine services and liturgy:

amen (hebr. amen – niech  się stanie  zaiste, zaprawdę, z pewnością – amen) – usual formula for conclusion of prayers and psalms in Judaism, Islam and Christianity, aimed at confirming and establishing true character of the words spoken ;

namaz (tur., z pers. Nämāz – prayer) – on Islam it is an obligatory prayer to be read five times a day.

Names of religious denominations, trends, beliefs or religious holidays:

mozaizm (fr. mosaїsme – mosaism ) – an early phase of Judaism;

totemizm (od totem, z języka Indian Algonkinów – totemism) – faith in existence of blood and family relationship between human groups and a totem ;  

kontrreformacja (fr. Contre, z łac. contra – przeciw + reformacja –counter reformation) religious movement aimed at modification of Catholic church, appeared as a reaction at development of Protestantism;

buddzym – (Buddhism religious and philosophic doctrine concerning spiritual resurrection, that appeared around VI century B.C. in Ancient India;

Chanuka (hebr. Chanukāh  – poświęcenie – faithfulness) –Jewish miracle-holiday, celebrating victory in the war between holiness and guilty consciousness

pascha (hebr. pesach – przejście Pascha – Easter) –the oldest Christian holiday, the most important holiday of religious year, established in honour of Resurrection of Jesus Christ;

holi (hindi) w hinduizmie – one of the most colourful Indian holidays, new year holiday in Bengali.

Words, borrowed from other languages, after penetration into Polish in most cases adapt eventually to its graphical, sound and grammar systems. The earlier the date of such borrowing, the grater is the degree of such adaptation. Foreign vocabulary, borrowed into Polish during the period of development of written language did not experience big phonetic alternations. So, it’s easy to identify them by their spelling or pronunciation.

Semantics of the borrowed vocabulary did not experience any changes. Some foreign borrowings enlarged or restricted their semantics as compared to their functioning in the donating language. Changes in the meaning of such words could have happened directly at borrowing from other languages or at their functioning in Polish. At semantic assimilation changes in the meaning are often fixed, particularly extension or reduction of meaning, a word may acquire a new meaning or lose it. It happened before and is happening, due to the processes that occur in the language.   

So, borrowing is one of the most important components of the vocabulary of the Polish language, the largest lexical and semantic group, existing in all distant genetic layers of religious borrowings being the group of “persons nominating”.  Having been adapted in the language the borrowings enlarge and enrich its vocabulary arsenal. Borrowing of words from other languages is a natural and important phenomenon for language development, as we couldn’t do without the words that had entered the language long ago and remained more or less assimilated in it.

Subsequent comprehensive etymological analysis by means of the method of inner and outer reconstruction, as well as detailed prognostication of stylistic possibilities of borrowed vocabulary in contemporary Polish seem to have some good prospects.

References. 

References

 

Bagrowicz, Jerzy. "Posoborowe przemiany w polskiej katechezie." "Przegląd Pastoralno-Homiletyczny № 4 (2000): 87-110. Print.

Bańko, Miroslaw. "Inny słownik języka polskiego." Warszawa, 2000. Print.

Kolomijets, Volodimir. "Rozvy`tok leksy`ky` slovyans`ky`x mov u pislyavoyenny`j period (The development of the vocabulary of Slavic languages in the postwar period)." Кiev: Naukova dumka, 1973. Print.

Kurkowska H., Skorupka S. "Stylistyka polska". Warszawa, 1959. Print.

Sobczykowa, J.  "O zrozumiałości języka liturgicznego. Czterechsetlecie Unii Brzeskiej. Zagadnienia języka religijnego." Lublin,1998. Print.

Szymczaka, M. "Słownik języka polskiego." Warszawa, 1996. Print.

Tokarskij, Jerzy. "Słownik wyrazów obcych." Warszawa, 1987. Print.

Urbańczyka, S. "Słownik staropolski" Warszawa,1953. Print.

 

Надійшла до редакції 07 вересня 2017 року.